Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪɪk/; DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a strand of DNA.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
In molecular biology, DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is a forensic technique used to identify individuals by characteristics of their DNA.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. Methylation can change the activity of a DNA segment without changing the sequence.
A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
DNA paternity testing is the use of DNA profiling (known as genetic fingerprinting) to determine whether two individuals are biologically parent and child.