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Avr microcontrollers

The meaning of «avr microcontrollers»

AVR is a family of microcontrollers developed since 1996 by Atmel, acquired by Microchip Technology in 2016. These are modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single-chip microcontrollers. AVR was one of the first microcontroller families to use on-chip flash memory for program storage, as opposed to one-time programmable ROM, EPROM, or EEPROM used by other microcontrollers at the time.

AVR microcontrollers find many applications as embedded systems. They are especially common in hobbyist and educational embedded applications, popularized by their inclusion in many of the Arduino line of open hardware development boards.

The AVR architecture was conceived by two students at the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH),[1] Alf-Egil Bogen[2] and Vegard Wollan.[3]

Atmel says that the name AVR is not an acronym and does not stand for anything in particular. The creators of the AVR give no definitive answer as to what the term "AVR" stands for.[3] However, it is commonly accepted that AVR stands for Alf and Vegard's RISC processor.[4] Note that the use of "AVR" in this article generally refers to the 8-bit RISC line of Atmel AVR Microcontrollers.

The original AVR MCU was developed at a local ASIC house in Trondheim, Norway, called Nordic VLSI at the time, now Nordic Semiconductor, where Bogen and Wollan were working as students.[citation needed] It was known as a μRISC (Micro RISC)[5] and was available as silicon IP/building block from Nordic VLSI.[6] When the technology was sold to Atmel from Nordic VLSI, the internal architecture was further developed by Bogen and Wollan at Atmel Norway, a subsidiary of Atmel. The designers worked closely with compiler writers at IAR Systems to ensure that the AVR instruction set provided efficient compilation of high-level languages.[7]

Among the first of the AVR line was the AT90S8515, which in a 40-pin DIP package has the same pinout as an 8051 microcontroller, including the external multiplexed address and data bus. The polarity of the RESET line was opposite (8051's having an active-high RESET, while the AVR has an active-low RESET), but other than that the pinout was identical.

The AVR 8-bit microcontroller architecture was introduced in 1997. By 2003, Atmel had shipped 500 million AVR flash microcontrollers.[8] The Arduino platform, developed for simple electronics projects, was released in 2005 and featured ATmega8 AVR microcontrollers.

The AVR is a modified Harvard architecture machine, where program and data are stored in separate physical memory systems that appear in different address spaces, but having the ability to read data items from program memory using special instructions.

AVRs are generally classified into following:

Flash, EEPROM, and SRAM are all integrated onto a single chip, removing the need for external memory in most applications. Some devices have a parallel external bus option to allow adding additional data memory or memory-mapped devices. Almost all devices (except the smallest TinyAVR chips) have serial interfaces, which can be used to connect larger serial EEPROMs or flash chips.

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