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The meaning of «avipoxvirus»

Avipoxvirus is a member of the family Poxviridae. Poxviridae is the family of viruses which cause the victim organism to have poxes as a symptom. Poxviruses have generally large genomes, and other such examples include smallpox and monkeypox. Members of the genus Avipoxvirus infect specifically birds. Avipoxviruses are unable to complete their replication cycle in non avian species.[1] Although it is comparably slow-spreading, Avipoxvirus is known to cause symptoms like pustules full of pus lining the skin and diphtheria-like symptoms. These diphtheria-like symptoms might include dipitheric necrotic membranes lining the mouth and the upper respiratory tract. Like other avian viruses, it can be transmitted through vectors mechanically such as through mosquitoes.[2] There is no evidence that this virus can infect humans.[3]

Avipoxvirus is a virus that is brick shaped and is usually 200 nanometres in diameter. This is much larger than normal viruses, which are around 60 nanometre in diameter. This virus can only be contracted through vectors and consumption of infected items, but they can be filtered by a special water filter. This filter is called a Large Volume Water Sampler (LVWS).

Unlike other viruses, Avipoxvirus can withstand extreme dryness. With this advantage, it can spread on dust particles. This is because it has adapted to living in the dry mucous membranes of an infected host's upper respiratory tract.

The effects of this virus might increase the difficulty of breathing, eating, and drinking significantly. Exterior lesions are restricted to the non-feathered parts of the body, usually the face and legs and are characterized by proliferative and necrotizing dermatitis.[4] Another feature of this bird pox that has been observed is the presence of blood sacs or blisters filled with bloody fluid that will collapse when pierced with a needle and allowed to drain.[5] This virus has the highest mortality rate in upland game birds such as pheasant, quail, and chukar partridge, as well as in songbirds, seabirds such as gulls, parrots, and some raptors such as the peregrine falcon.

Other names for this particular virus might include avian pox, fowlpox, canarypox, juncopox, and mynahpox.

Avipoxvirus affects more than 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide.[6] It affects a variety of birds including chickens, turkeys, songbirds, upland game birds, seabirds, pets, and occasionally raptors, but is rarely found in waterfowl and shore birds. Its prevalence among wild populations is unknown due to lack of studies It is most common in temperate (warm and humid) climates. All cases in North America have relatively recent. The United States Geological Survey has reported an increased number of cases in multiple countries with new affected bird species added in recent years. This suggests avian pox is an emerging viral disease.[7]

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