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Avocado production in mexico

The meaning of «avocado production in mexico»

Avocado production is important to the economy of Mexico with the country being the world's largest producer of the crop.[1][2] Mexico supplies 45 percent of the international avocado market.[3] Of the 57 avocado producing countries, the other major producers are Dominican Republic, Peru, Colombia, and Indonesia in that order.[4]

The 'Avocado Belt of the Mexican Republic' includes Michoacán and the State of Mexico.[5] The major cultivars in Mexico are Fuerte, Hass, Bacon, Reed, Criollor, and Zutano.[6]

Avocado is native to Central Mexico where its ancient history, established by archaeological evidence from Claude Earle Smith Jr., who discovered avocado cotyledon remains within deposits of the Coxcatlán Cave, in Tehuacán, in Puebla state, that date back to about 10,000 years ago. Nuevo León state has remnants of primitive avocado trees.[7] It spread to other countries in the Americas including the United States. It is a "functional food" in the Americas; the many varieties which grow in Mexico suit the climatic conditions.[7]

Ancient residents of Mexico including the Aztecs and other indigenous groups thought that the form of a fruit contributed to its properties.[8] Therefore, eating avocado promoted strength and virility. 16th century Spanish colonial documentation of Indian medicinal plant usage reaffirms this association, noting the fruit’s reputation as an aphrodisiac, as well as its propensity for aiding childbirth and reducing inflammation and indigestion.[8] The avocado likely also held cultural meaning for the Maya, who believed in the rebirth of their ancestors as trees and were therefore known to surround their houses with fruit trees, including avocados.[9]

In the 1950s, orchards of Fuerte cultivar were established; two decades later, orchards of Hass cultivar were established and it became the country's leading cultivar.[5] This cultivar emerged when a postal worker in Southern California, Rudolph Hass, took a leap of faith to purchase a small 1.5-acre grove in La Habra Heights to experiment with growing high yield avocado trees. The graft he settled upon and patented in 1935 was predominantly Guatemalan with some Mexican genes.[10] It produced fruits that were a darker shade of purple than many were accustomed to, but was tastier, less oily, and kept better. Hass’ profits from his patent through its expiration in 1960 summed a meager $4800.[11] Today, more than 85% of avocados grown globally are of the Hass variety.[10] Hass avocados have shown susceptibility to pests such as Persea mites and avocado thrips.[10]

In 2007, the avocado was Mexico’s fifth ranked fruit crop.[3] Being a staple food, the majority of avocados produced in Mexico are consumed in the country. Fresh domestic consumption for 2010-11 was forecast at 806,119 metric tons (888,594 short tons; 793,388 long tons), representing an 8.45 percent increase over the previous year.[12]

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