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Avro lincoln

The meaning of «avro lincoln»

The Avro Type 694 Lincoln is a British four-engined heavy bomber, which first flew on 9 June 1944. Developed from the Avro Lancaster, the first Lincoln variants were initially known as the Lancaster IV and V; these were renamed Lincoln I and II. It was the last piston-engined bomber operated by the Royal Air Force (RAF).

The Lincoln attained operational status in August 1945. It had been initially assigned to units of the Tiger Force, a Commonwealth heavy bomber force which had been intended to play a role in the closing stages of the Second World War by participating in the Japan campaign with operations against the Japanese mainland; the war ended before the Lincoln went into action. Production of the type proceeded and the type was adopted in quantity, allowing it to complement and progressively replace the preceding Lancaster in RAF service during the late 1940s.

The Lincoln was deployed on operations during the 1950s. RAF squadrons equipped with the type were used as part of Britain's action against guerrilla fighters during the Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya; the RAF and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) operated the Lincoln during the Malayan Emergency. The type also saw significant peacetime service with the RAF, RAAF and the Argentine Air Force (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Argentina). Lincolns were also operated in civil aviation, including use as aerial test beds for aero-engine research.

In RAF service, the Lincoln was replaced by a new generation of bombers harnessing newly developed jet propulsion. Chief amongst these was the English Electric Canberra, which was also adopted by a wide range of operators across the world including the RAAF and Argentine Air Force. During the 1950s, the RAF also adopted a total of three advanced jet-powered strategic bombers to carry Britain's new nuclear deterrent – collectively known as the V Force – the Vickers Valiant, Handley Page Victor and the Avro Vulcan. In 1967, the last Lincoln bombers in Argentinian service were retired.

The Avro Lincoln originated from a design produced by Roy Chadwick as a development of the earlier Lancaster bomber which had been produced with the purpose of conforming with the requirements of the Specification B.14/43.[2][3] Known initially as the Lancaster IV and Lancaster V, the envisioned aircraft, while bearing considerable similarity to the Lancaster, featured numerous improvements, such as the adoption of stronger, longer span, higher aspect ratio (10.30 compared with 8.02) wings along with two-stage supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin 85 engines fitted within Universal Power Plant (UPP) installations.[4][3] The new bomber also possessed an enlarged fuselage that accommodated increased fuel and bomb loads and allowing for the carriage of up to 11 tons of various armaments and equipment fittings including the Grand Slam bomb. As a result of these changes, it would possess a higher operational ceiling and longer range than its Lancaster predecessor, being capable of a maximum altitude of 35,000 ft (6.5 miles) and a maximum range of 4,450 miles.[5][4]

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