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Boko haram

The meaning of «boko haram»

Marte, Borno, Nigeria (April–September 2015)[2][3] Sambisa Forest, Borno, Nigeria (March 2015 – May 2021)[1][2]

Boko Haram, officially known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād[14] (Arabic: جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد‎, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad"),[15] is a terrorist organization based in northeastern Nigeria, which is also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.[9] In 2016, the group split, resulting in the emergence of a hostile faction known as the Islamic State's West Africa Province.

Founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2002, the group was led by Abubakar Shekau from 2009 until his death in 2021, although it splintered into other groups after Yusuf's death and also in 2015.[16] When the group was first formed, their main goal was to "purify"[clarification needed] Islam in northern Nigeria, believing jihad should be delayed until the group was strong enough to overthrow the Nigerian government.[17] The group formerly aligned itself with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.[18][19] The group has been known for its brutality,[20] and since the insurgency started in 2009, Boko Haram has killed tens of thousands of people, in frequent attacks against the police, armed forces and civilians. It has resulted in the deaths of more than 300,000 children[21] and displaced 2.3 million from their homes[22] and was during part of the mid 2010s the world's deadliest terror group according to the Global Terrorism Index.[23][24] Boko Haram has contributed to regional food crises and famines.[20]

After its founding in 2002, Boko Haram's increasing radicalisation led to the suppression operation by the Nigerian military and the killing of its leader Mohammed Yusuf in July 2009.[25] Its unexpected resurgence, following a mass prison break in September 2010 in Bauchi, was accompanied by increasingly sophisticated attacks, initially against soft targets, but progressing in 2011 to include suicide bombings of police buildings and the United Nations office in Abuja. The government's establishment of a state of emergency at the beginning of 2012, extended in the following year to cover the entire northeast of Nigeria, led to an increase in both security force abuses and militant attacks.[26][16][27][28]

Of the 2.3 million people displaced by the conflict since May 2013, at least 250,000 left Nigeria and fled to Cameroon, Chad or Niger.[29] Boko Haram killed over 6,600 people in 2014.[30][31] The group has carried out mass abductions including the kidnapping of 276 schoolgirls in Chibok, Borno State, Nigeria, in April 2014. Corruption in the security services and human rights abuses committed by them have hampered efforts to counter the unrest.[32][33]

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