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Boko haram insurgency

The meaning of «boko haram insurgency»

Ongoing (Map of the current military situation)

Boko Haram (partially aligned with ISIL from 2015)[a]

ISWAP (originally Barnawi faction of Boko Haram; from 2016)[36][37] Ansaru[b]Supported by: al-Qaeda[42]

Muhammadu Buhari Goodluck Jonathan Umaru Yar'Adua Ibrahim Gaidam) Kashim Shettima Ali Modu Sheriff Isa Yuguda Brig. General Dzarma Zirkusu [51] Paul Biya Mahamat Déby Itno Idriss Déby ) Mohamed Bazoum

Nigerian Army:130,000 active frontline personnel; 32,000 active reserve personnel Nigeria Police Force:371,800 officers Multinational Joint Task Force:7,500 active personnel[13](excluding Cameroon and Nigeria) Cameroonian Armed Forces:20,000 active personnel 300 U.S. advisers[26][27]

Thousands killed, captured, or surrendered

350,000 deaths total, of which 35,000 direct[70]

The Boko Haram insurgency began in July 2009,[74][75] when the militant Islamist and jihadist rebel group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria.[50][76] The conflict takes place within the context of long-standing issues of religious violence between Nigeria's Muslim and Christian communities, and the insurgents' ultimate aim is to establish an Islamic state in the region.[77]

Boko Haram's initial uprising failed, and its leader Mohammed Yusuf was killed by the Nigerian government.[78] The movement consequently fractured into autonomous groups and started an insurgency, though rebel commander Abubakar Shekau managed to achieve a kind of primacy among the insurgents. Though challenged by internal rivals, such as Abu Usmatul al-Ansari's Salafist conservative faction and the Ansaru faction, Shekau became the insurgency's de facto leader and mostly kept the different Boko Haram factions from fighting each other, instead focusing on overthrowing the Nigerian government.[79] Supported by other jihadist organizations including al-Qaeda and al-Shabaab, Shekau's tactics were marked by extreme brutality and explicit targeting of civilians.

After years of fighting, the insurgents became increasingly aggressive, and started to seize large areas in northeastern Nigeria. The violence escalated dramatically in 2014 with 10.849 deaths, while Boko Haram drastically expanded its territories.[80][81][82][83] At the same time, the insurgency spread to neighboring Cameroon, Chad, Kenya, Mali, and Niger, thus becoming a major regional conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa.[48][50][84] Meanwhile, Shekau attempted to improve his international standing among jihadists by tacitly aligning with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in March 2015, with Boko Haram becoming the "Islamic State's West Africa Province" (ISWAP).[48]

The insurgents were driven back during the 2015 West African offensive by a Nigeria-led coalition of African and Western countries, forcing the Islamists to retreat into Sambisa Forest and bases at Lake Chad. Discontent about various issues consequently grew among Boko Haram. Dissidents among the movement allied themselves with IS' central command and challenged Shekau's leadership, resulting in a violent split of the insurgents. Since then, Shekau and his group are generally referred to as "Boko Haram", whereas the dissidents continued to operate as ISWAP under Abu Musab al-Barnawi. The two factions consequently fought against each other while waging insurgencies against the local governments. After a period of reversals, Boko Haram and ISWAP launched new offensives in 2018 and 2019, again growing in strength.

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