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Bosnia and herzegovina in the middle ages

The meaning of «bosnia and herzegovina in the middle ages»

This is the history of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Middle Ages, between the ancient and Roman period and the Ottoman period.

The western Balkans had been reconquered from "barbarians" by Byzantine Emperor Justinian (r. 527–565). Sclaveni (Slavs) raided the western Balkans, including Bosnia, in the 6th century.[1]

At the beginning of the 7th century the first waves of Slavs had settled in Bosnia, along the Drina, Bosna and Vrbas rivers to the Adriatic coast. These were followed by Serbs and Croats who arrived in the late 620s and early 630s, invited by Emperor Heraclius to fend off an invasion by the Pannonian Avars, who had by this time settled western parts of Bosnia. By the 9th century, Bosnia was mostly Christianized by Latin priests from the Dalmatian coastal towns, though remote pockets remained unreached. Northeastern Bosnia was captured by Carolingian Franks in the early 9th century and remained under their jurisdiction until 870s. In what is now eastern Herzegovina and Montenegro, semi-independent localities emerged under Serbian rule. Peter Gojniković annexed entire eastern Bosnia by defeating local Slavic lord Tišemir of Bosnia,[2] and pushing into Zahumlje came into conflict with Michael of Zahumlje. Croatian king Tomislav reintegrated Bosnia to roughly the same territorial extent as the Franks had held half a century earlier in the early 900s.[3][4] In 949, a civil war broke out in Croatia leading to the conquest of Bosnia by Časlav, but after his death in 960, it was retaken by Kresimir of Croatia.[5][6] Additionally, Duklja absorbed Zahumlje under John Vladmir. In 1019 Byzantine Emperor Basil II forced the Serb and Croat rulers to acknowledge Byzantine sovereignty, though this had little impact over the governance of Bosnia. Northeastern Bosnia was given to the king of Hungary and Croatia by Raška in 1030 as part of a dowry between Bella II and the daughter of Uroš I, Jelena. In 1042, the Byzantines amassed a large coalition, which included the ruler of Bosnia and the prince of Zahumlje, against the ruler of Duklja, Stefan Vojislav. Vojislav soundly defeated this coalition and went on to annex Zahumlje.

During this period Bosnia is already territorially and politically defined entity,[7] governed by a ban, from at least 838 AD.[8][9][10] The De Administrando Imperio (DAI; ca. 960) mentions Bosnia (Βοσωνα/Bosona) as a "small/little land" (or "small country"), inhabited by Serbs along with Zahumlje and Travunija (both with territory in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina).[11] This is the first mention of a distinct Bosnian region. Historians have established that the medieval Bosnian polity was situated, broadly, around the Bosna river, between its upper and the middle course: in the south to north direction between the line formed by its source and the Prača river in the south, and the line formed by the Drinjača river and the Krivaja river (from Olovo, downstream to town of Maglaj), and Vlašić mountain in the north, and in the west to east direction between the Rama-Vrbas line stretching from the Neretva to Pliva in the west, and the Drina in the east, which is a wider area of central and eastern modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina.[12][13][10][14] In the Early Middle Ages, it is believed that what is today central and western Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of Croatia, while the rest was divided between Croatia and Serbia.[11][15][16]

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