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The meaning of «ciprofloxacin»

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone (flor-o-KWIN-o-lone) antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.[3] This includes bone and joint infections, intra abdominal infections, certain type of infectious diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, skin infections, typhoid fever, and urinary tract infections, among others.[3] For some infections it is used in addition to other antibiotics.[3] It can be taken by mouth, as eye drops, as ear drops, or intravenously.[3][4]

Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.[3] Severe side effects include an increased risk of tendon rupture, hallucinations, and nerve damage.[3] In people with myasthenia gravis, there is worsening muscle weakness.[3] Rates of side effects appear to be higher than some groups of antibiotics such as cephalosporins but lower than others such as clindamycin.[5] Studies in other animals raise concerns regarding use in pregnancy.[6] No problems were identified, however, in the children of a small number of women who took the medication.[6] It appears to be safe during breastfeeding.[3] It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone with a broad spectrum of activity that usually results in the death of the bacteria.[3][7][8]

Ciprofloxacin was patented in 1980 and introduced in 1987.[9][10] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[11] The World Health Organization classifies ciprofloxacin as critically important for human medicine.[12] It is available as a generic medication.[3][13] In 2018, it was the 109th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 6 million prescriptions.[14][15]

Ciprofloxacin is used to treat a wide variety of infections, including infections of bones and joints, endocarditis, gastroenteritis, malignant otitis externa, respiratory tract infections, cellulitis, urinary tract infections, prostatitis, anthrax, and chancroid.[3]

Ciprofloxacin only treats bacterial infections; it does not treat viral infections such as the common cold. For certain uses including acute sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections and uncomplicated gonorrhea, ciprofloxacin is not considered a first-line agent.

Ciprofloxacin occupies an important role in treatment guidelines issued by major medical societies for the treatment of serious infections, especially those likely to be caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For example, ciprofloxacin in combination with metronidazole is one of several first-line antibiotic regimens recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the treatment of community-acquired abdominal infections in adults.[16] It also features prominently in treatment guidelines for acute pyelonephritis, complicated or hospital-acquired urinary tract infection, acute or chronic prostatitis,[17] certain types of endocarditis,[18] certain skin infections,[19] and prosthetic joint infections.[20]

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