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The meaning of «doxorubicin»

Doxorubicin, sold under the brand name Adriamycin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.[3] This includes breast cancer, bladder cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma, and acute lymphocytic leukemia.[3] It is often used together with other chemotherapy agents.[3] Doxorubicin is given by injection into a vein.[3]

Common side effects include hair loss, bone marrow suppression, vomiting, rash, and inflammation of the mouth.[3] Other serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, heart damage, tissue damage at the site of injection, radiation recall, and treatment-related leukemia.[3] People often experience red discoloration of the urine for a few days.[3] Doxorubicin is in the anthracycline and antitumor antibiotic family of medications.[3] It works in part by interfering with the function of DNA.[4]

Doxorubicin was approved for medical use in the United States in 1974.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[5][6] Versions that are pegylated and in liposomes are also available; however, are more expensive.[6] Doxorubicin was originally made from the bacteria Streptomyces peucetius.[7]

Doxorubicin is commonly used to treat some leukemias and Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as cancers of the bladder, breast, stomach, lung, ovaries, thyroid, soft tissue sarcoma, multiple myeloma, and others.[2][8] Commonly used doxorubicin-containing regimens are AC (Adriamycin, cyclophosphamide), TAC (taxotere, AC), ABVD (Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine), BEACOPP, CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) and FAC (5-fluorouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide).[2]

Doxil (see below) is used primarily for the treatment of ovarian cancer where the disease has progressed or recurred after platinum-based chemotherapy, or for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.[9]

There is a pegylated (polyethylene glycol coated) liposome-encapsulated form of doxorubicin, sold as Doxil. It was developed to treat Kaposi's sarcoma, an AIDS-related cancer that causes lesions to grow under the skin, in the lining of the mouth, nose and throat, or in other organs. The polyethylene glycol coating results in preferential concentration of doxorubicin in the skin. However, this also results in a side effect called palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), more commonly known as hand-foot syndrome.

Following administration of this form of doxorubicin, small amounts of the drug can leak from capillaries in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The result of this leakage is redness, tenderness, and peeling of the skin that can be uncomfortable and even painful. In clinical testing at 50 mg/m2 dosing every 4 weeks, half of people developed hand-foot syndrome. The rate of this side effect limits the dose of this formulation that can be given as compared with plain doxorubicin in the same treatment regimen, thereby limiting potential substitution. Substitution would be desirable because liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin is less cardiotoxic than unencapsulated doxorubicin. This liposome-encapsulated form is also approved by the FDA for treatment of ovarian cancer and multiple myeloma.[10][11]

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