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Doxycycline

The meaning of «doxycycline»

Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum tetracycline-class antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by bacteria and certain parasites.[1] It is used to treat bacterial pneumonia, acne, chlamydia infections, early Lyme disease, cholera, typhus, and syphilis.[1] It is also used to prevent malaria and in combination with quinine, to treat malaria.[1] Doxycycline may be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein.[1]

Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and an increased risk of sunburn.[1] Use after the first trimester of pregnancy or in young children may result in permanent problems with the teeth including changes in their colour.[1] Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe.[1] Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, of the tetracycline class.[1] Like other agents of this class, it either slows or kills bacteria by inhibiting protein production.[1][2] It kills malaria by targeting a plastid organelle, the apicoplast.[3][4]

Doxycycline was patented in 1957 and came into commercial use in 1967.[5][6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[7] Doxycycline is available as a generic medicine and is generally inexpensive.[1][8] In 2017, it was the 113th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than six million prescriptions.[9][10]

In addition to the general indications for all members of the tetracycline antibiotics group, doxycycline is frequently used to treat Lyme disease, chronic prostatitis, sinusitis, pelvic inflammatory disease,[11][12] acne, rosacea,[13][14] and rickettsial infections.[15]

In Canada, in 2004, doxycycline was considered a first-line treatment for chlamydia and non-gonococcal urethritis and with cefixime for uncomplicated gonorrhea.[16]

Moraxella catarrhalis, Brucella melitensis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are generally susceptible to doxycycline, while some Haemophilus spp., Mycoplasma hominis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have developed resistance to varying degrees.[17]

It is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of anthrax and Leptospirosis.[18] It is also effective against Yersinia pestis (the infectious agent of bubonic plague), and is prescribed for the treatment of Lyme disease,[19][20][21][22] ehrlichiosis,[23][24] and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.[25]

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of:[25][26]

When bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug, doxycycline may be used to treat these infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria:[25][26]

Some Gram-positive bacteria have developed resistance to doxycycline. Up to 44% of Streptococcus pyogenes and up to 74% of S. faecalis specimens have developed resistance to the tetracycline group of antibiotics. Up to 57% of P.acnes strains developed resistance to doxycycline.[30] When bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug, doxycycline may be used to treat these infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria:[25][26]

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