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Fhad1

The meaning of «fhad1»

Forkhead-associated domain containing protein 1 (FHAD1) is a protein encoded by the FHAD1 gene.

As the name suggests, it has a forkhead-associated domain and an extensive coiled coil structure. It is predicted to have a function related to DNA transcription. It is localized to the nucleus and has a nuclear localization signal.

In humans, the FHAD1 gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.21) and the genomic sequence is on the plus strand starting from 15236559 bp and ending at 15400283 bp.[1] There are 3 main genes around FHAD1, out of which 2 encode proteins with known functions. Two genes, EFHD2 and Chymotrypsin-C (CTRC) lie downstream of FHAD1 on the plus strand.[1] TMEM51 lies upstream of FHAD1.[1]

FHAD1 is 163,682 bases long and contains 43 exons.

FHAD1 has 4 aliases, Forkhead associated phosphopeptide binding domain 1, Forkhead-associated (FHA) phosphopeptide binding domain 1, FHA Domain-Containing Protein 1, and KIAA1937.[2]

The mRNA transcript of FHAD1 5138 bp long. The gene has 30 isoforms based on NCBI gene data.

The FHAD 1 protein is 1412 aa long, weighs 16.2 kDa and has an isoelectric point of 6.52.[3] It has 3 isoforms, namely 1, 3 and 4, but only isoform 1 is supported by experimental evidence. It consists of 1 glutamic acid rich region and 1 proline rich region.

The FHA domain extends from 18 - 84 aa in the protein. It can recognize and bind to phosphorylation sites, specifically pSer, pThr and pTyr. The exact mechanism and function of this domain still being studied, but it is found in proteins performing many different functions, mainly DNA repair and transduction.[4]

FHAD1 contains one Smc (Structural maintenance of chromosomes) region from 275 - 1401 aa. This region encodes Smc proteins that are involved in cell cycle control, cell division and chromosome separation.[5]

This region extends from 394 - 494 aa in FHAD1. The proteins encoded by the TMPIT proteins are predicted to be transmembrane proteins.[6] However, there is lack of literature to support this.

This domain extends from 694 - 777 aa in FHAD1. It encodes a protein from a family of bacterial proteins with no known function.[7]

FHAD1 contains the forkhead-associated domain that consists of beta sheets. Based on structure prediction softwares, the rest of the protein consists of alpha helices and random coils. Overall, FHAD1 has a coiled coil structure as shown in the figure.

FHAD1 is predicted to undergo multiple different types of post-translational modifications based on prediction softwares.

FHAD1 has been predicted to be a nuclear protein with 94.1% reliability. It also contains possible nuclear localization signal sequences between 1100 - 1107 aa. Two pat4 and one pat7 sequences were predicted. Pat4 and pat7 are consensus sequences consisting of clusters of lysine or arginine residues.

In humans, FHAD1 is expressed in testis, fallopian tube and uterine tissues in females, nasopharynx and bronchi of lungs based on studies found on the Human Protein Atlas.[9] NCBI's EST Profile also showed that FHAD1 is highly expressed in the testis, with some expression in the trachea and esophagus. In mice, the gene was also expressed in the testis, along with the pituitary gland, lung and brain.

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