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The meaning of «gsk-3»

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates the addition of phosphate molecules onto serine and threonine amino acid residues. First discovered in 1980 as a regulatory kinase for its namesake, glycogen synthase (GS),[2] GSK-3 has since been identified as a protein kinase for over 100 different proteins in a variety of different pathways.[3][4] In mammals, including humans, GSK-3 exists in two isoforms encoded by two paralogous genes GSK-3α (GSK3A) and GSK-3β (GSK3B). GSK-3 has been the subject of much research since it has been implicated in a number of diseases, including type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, inflammation, cancer, and bipolar disorder.

GSK-3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylate either threonine or serine, and this phosphorylation controls a variety of biological activities, such as glycogen metabolism, cell signaling, cellular transport, and others.[5] GS inhibition by GSK-3β leads to a decrease in glycogen synthesis in the liver and muscles, along with increased blood glucose or hyperglycemia.[6] This is why GSK-3β is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of many diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, cancer,[7] and Alzheimer's disease.[8] It is active in resting cells and is inhibited by several hormones such as insulin, endothelial growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor. Insulin inactivates it by phosphorylation of the specific serine residues Ser21 and Ser9 in GSK-3 isoforms α and β, respectively. In a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent way.[citation needed]

As of 2019[update], GSK-3 is the only type of glycogen synthase kinase named and recognized. The gene symbols for GSK1 and GSK2 have been withdrawn by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC), and no new names for these "genes" nor their locations have been specified.[9][10]

GSK-3 functions by phosphorylating a serine or threonine residue on its target substrate. A positively charged pocket adjacent to the active site binds a "priming" phosphate group attached to a serine or threonine four residues C-terminal of the target phosphorylation site. The active site, at residues 181, 200, 97, and 85, binds the terminal phosphate of ATP and transfers it to the target location on the substrate (see figure 1).[11]

Glycogen synthase is an enzyme that is responsible in glycogen synthesis. It is activated by glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), and inhibited by glycogen synthase kinases (GSK3). Those two mechanisms play an important role in glycogen metabolism.[12]

Phosphorylation of a protein by GSK-3 usually inhibits the activity of its downstream target.[13][14][15] GSK-3 is active in a number of central intracellular signaling pathways, including cellular proliferation, migration, glucose regulation, and apoptosis.

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