Home »

Gynecologic oncology

The meaning of «gynecologic oncology»

Gynecologic oncology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on cancers of the female reproductive system, including ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, cervical cancer, and vulvar cancer. As specialists, they have extensive training in the diagnosis and treatment of these cancers.

In the United States, 82,000 women are diagnosed with gynecologic cancer annually.[1] In 2013, an estimated 91,730 were diagnosed.[2]

The Society of Gynecologic Oncology and the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology are professional organizations for gynecologic oncologists, and the Gynecologic Oncology Group is a professional organization for gynecological oncologists as well as other medical professionals who deal with gynecologic cancers. The Foundation for Women's Cancer is the major U.S. organization that raises awareness and research funding and provides educational programs and materials about gynecologic cancers.

There is low quality evidence which demonstrates women with gynaecological cancer receiving treatment from specialized centres benefit from longer survival than those managed in standard care.[3] A meta analysis of three studies combining over 9000 women, suggested that specialist gynaecological cancer treatment centres may prolong the lives of women with ovarian cancer compared with general or community hospitals. In addition, a meta‐analysis of three other studies which assessed over 50,000 women, found that teaching centres or specialized cancer centres may prolong women’s lives compared to those treated in community or general hospitals.

Gynecological cancers comprise 10-15% of women’s cancers, mainly affecting women past reproductive age but posing threats to fertility for younger patients.[4] The most common route for treatment is combination therapy, consisting of a mix of both surgical and non-surgical interventions (radiotherapy, chemotherapy).[4]

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing gynecologic cancers such as endometrial and ovarian cancer.[5] For endometrial cancer, every 5-unit increase on the BMI scale was associated with a 50-60% increase in risk.[6] Type 1 endometrial cancer is the most common endometrial cancer.[7] As many as 90% of patients diagnosed with Type 1 endometrial cancer are obese.[8] Although a correlation between obesity and ovarian cancer is possible, the association is predominantly found in low-grade subtypes of the cancer.[9]

Genetic mutations such as the BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been strongly linked to the development of ovarian cancer.[10] The BRCA1 mutation has been shown to increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer by 36% - 60%.[11] The BRCA2 mutation has been shown to increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer by 16% - 27%.[11]

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted disease that has been associated with some gynecologic cancers, including those of the cervix, vagina, and vulva.[12] A clear link between human papilloma virus and cervical cancer has long been established, with HPV associated with 70% to 90% of cases.[13] Persistent human papilloma virus infections have been shown to be a driving factor for 70% to 75% of vaginal and vulvar cancers.[13]

Related Searches

Gynecologic Oncology (journal)Gynecologic Oncology Group
© 2015-2021, Wikiwordbook.info
Copying information without reference to the source is prohibited!
contact us mobile version