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Ibn taymiyyah

The meaning of «ibn taymiyyah»

Taqī ad-Dīn ʾAḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ibn ʿAbd al-Salām al-Numayrī al-Ḥarrānī (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد الحليم بن عبد السلام النميري الحراني‎, January 22, 1263 – September 26, 1328), known simply ibn Taymīyyah (ابن تيمية),[13][14] was a Sunni Islamic scholar,[15] muhaddith, theologian, judge, philosopher,[16][17] and sometimes controversial thinker and political figure.[18][15] He is known for his diplomatic involvement with the Ilkhanid ruler Ghazan Khan and for his involvement at the Battle of Marj al-Saffar which ended the Mongol invasions of the Levant.[19] A member of the Hanbali school, Ibn Taymiyyah's iconoclastic views on widely accepted doctrines of his time such as the veneration of saints and the visitation to their tomb-shrines made him unpopular with many scholars and rulers of the time, under whose orders he was imprisoned several times.[20]

A polarising figure in his own times and in the centuries that followed,[21][22] Ibn Taymiyyah has become one of the most influential medieval writers in contemporary Islam,[20] where his particular interpretations of the Qur'an and the Sunnah and his rejection of some aspects of classical Islamic tradition are believed to have had considerable influence on contemporary ultra-conservative movements such as Salafi-Jihadism.[23][24][25] Particular aspects of his teachings had a profound influence on Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the founder of the Hanbali reform movement practiced in Saudi Arabia, and on other later Wahabi scholars.[8] Rashid Rida considered him as the renewer of the Islamic 7th century.[26] Moreover, Ibn Taymiyyah's controversial fatwa allowing jihad against other Muslims is referenced by al-Qaeda and other jihadi groups.[27][28] Their reading of Ibn Taymiyyah's thought has been challenged by recent scholarship.[29][30]

Ibn Taymiyyah's full name is ʾAḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ibn ʿAbd as-Salām ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn al-Khiḍr ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Khiḍr ibn ʾIbrāhīm ibn ʿAli ibn ʿAbdullāh an-Numayrī al-Ḥarrānī[12] (Arabic: أحمد بن عبد الحليم بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله بن الخضر بن محمد بن الخضر بن إبراهيم بن علي بن عبد الله النميري الحراني‎).

Ibn Taymiyyah's (ابن تيمية) name is unusual in that it is derived from a female member of his family as opposed to a male member, which was the normal custom at the time and still is now. Taymiyyah was a prominent woman, famous for her scholarship and piety and the name Ibn Taymiyyah was taken up by many of her male descendants.[12]

Ibn Taymiyyah had a simple life, most of which he dedicated to learning, writing, and teaching. He never married nor did he have a female companion throughout his years.[31][32] Al-Matroudi says that this may be why he was able to engage fully with the political affairs of his time without holding any official position such as that of a judge.[33] An offer of an official position was made to him but he never accepted.[33] His life was that of a religious scholar and a political activist.[32] In his efforts he was persecuted and imprisoned on six occasions[34] with the total time spent inside prison coming to over six years.[32][29] Other sources say that he spent over twelve years in prison.[33] His detentions were due to certain elements of his creed and his views on some jurisprudential issues.[31] However according to Yahya Michot, "the real reasons were more trivial". Michot gives five reasons as to why Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned, they being: not complying with the "doctrines and practices prevalent among powerful religious and Sufi establishments, an overly outspoken personality, the jealousy of his peers, the risk to public order due to this popular appeal and political intrigues."[29] Baber Johansen, a professor at the Harvard Divinity School, says that the reasons for Ibn Taymiyyah's incarcerations were, "as a result of his conflicts with Muslim mystics, jurists, and theologians, who were able to persuade the political authorities of the necessity to limit Ibn Taymiyyah's range of action through political censorship and incarceration."[35]

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Ibn Taymiyyah (disambiguation)
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