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Ibn al-haytham

The meaning of «ibn al-haytham»

Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhazen[15] /ælˈhæzən/;[16] full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم; c. 965 – c. 1040) was a Muslim Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.[17][18][19][20][21][22] Referred to as "the father of modern optics",[23][24] he made significant contributions to the principles of optics and visual perception in particular. His most influential work is titled Kitāb al-Manāẓir (Arabic: كتاب المناظر, "Book of Optics"), written during 1011–1021, which survived in a Latin edition.[25] A polymath, he also wrote on philosophy, theology and medicine.[26]

Ibn al-Haytham was the first to explain that vision occurs when light reflects from an object and then passes to one's eyes.[27] He was also the first to demonstrate that vision occurs in the brain, rather than in the eyes.[28] Ibn al-Haytham was an early proponent of the concept that a hypothesis must be supported by experiments based on confirmable procedures or mathematical evidence—an early pioneer in the scientific method five centuries before Renaissance scientists.[29][30][31][32][33][34]

Born in Basra, he spent most of his productive period in the Fatimid capital of Cairo and earned his living authoring various treatises and tutoring members of the nobilities.[35] Ibn al-Haytham is sometimes given the byname al-Baṣrī after his birthplace,[36] or al-Miṣrī ("of Egypt").[37][38] Al-Haytham was dubbed the "Second Ptolemy" by Abu'l-Hasan Bayhaqi[39][40] and "The Physicist" by John Peckham.[41] Ibn al-Haytham paved the way for the modern science of physical optics.[42]

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) was born c. 965 to an Arab[22][18] family in Basra, Iraq, which was at the time part of the Buyid emirate. His initial influences were in the study of religion and service to the community. At the time, the society had a number of conflicting views of religion that he ultimately sought to step aside from religion. This led to him delving into the study of mathematics and science.[43] He held a position with the title vizier in his native Basra, and made a name for himself for his knowledge of applied mathematics. As he claimed to be able to regulate the flooding of the Nile, he was invited to Fatimid Caliph by al-Hakim in order to realise a hydraulic project at Aswan. However, Ibn al-Haytham was forced to concede the impracticability of his project.[44] Upon his return to Cairo, he was given an administrative post. After he proved unable to fulfill this task as well, he contracted the ire of the caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah,[45] and is said to have been forced into hiding until the caliph's death in 1021, after which his confiscated possessions were returned to him.[46] Legend has it that Alhazen feigned madness and was kept under house arrest during this period.[47] During this time, he wrote his influential Book of Optics. Alhazen continued to live in Cairo, in the neighborhood of the famous University of al-Azhar, and lived from the proceeds of his literary production[48] until his death in c. 1040.[44] (A copy of Apollonius' Conics, written in Ibn al-Haytham's own handwriting exists in Aya Sofya: (MS Aya Sofya 2762, 307 fob., dated Safar 415 a.h. [1024]).)[40]: Note 2 

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