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Ibuprofen

The meaning of «ibuprofen»

Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.[7] This includes painful menstrual periods, migraines, and rheumatoid arthritis.[7] It may also be used to close a patent ductus arteriosus in a premature baby.[7] It can be used by mouth or intravenously.[7] It typically begins working within an hour.[7]

Common side effects include heartburn and a rash.[7] Compared to other NSAIDs, it may have other side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding.[8] It increases the risk of heart failure, kidney failure, and liver failure.[7] At low doses, it does not appear to increase the risk of heart attack; however, at higher doses it may.[8] Ibuprofen can also worsen asthma.[8] While it is unclear whether it is safe in early pregnancy,[7] it appears to be harmful in later pregnancy and therefore is not recommended.[9] Like other NSAIDs, it works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins by decreasing the activity of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX).[7] Ibuprofen is a weaker anti-inflammatory agent than other NSAIDs.[8]

Ibuprofen was discovered in 1961 by Stewart Adams and John Nicholson[10] while working at Boots UK Limited and initially marketed as Brufen.[11] It is available under a number of trade names, including Nurofen, Advil and Motrin.[7][12] It was first marketed in 1969 in the United Kingdom and in 1974 in the United States.[7][11] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[13] It is available as a generic medication.[7] In 2018, it was the 28th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 24 million prescriptions.[14][15]

Ibuprofen is used primarily to treat fever (including post-vaccination fever), mild to moderate pain (including pain relief after surgery), painful menstruation, osteoarthritis, dental pain, headaches, and pain from kidney stones. About 60% of people respond to any NSAID; those who do not respond well to a particular one may respond to another.[16]

It is used for inflammatory diseases such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.[17][18] It is also used for pericarditis and patent ductus arteriosus.[19][20]

In some countries, ibuprofen lysine (the lysine salt of ibuprofen, sometimes called "ibuprofen lysinate") is licensed for treatment of the same conditions as ibuprofen; the lysine salt is used because it is more water-soluble.[21]

Ibuprofen lysine is being sold for rapid pain relief [22] because, given in form of a lysine salt, absorption is much quicker (35 minutes compared to 90–120 minutes).

In 2006, ibuprofen lysine was approved in the U.S. by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for closure of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants weighing between 500 and 1,500 g (1 and 3 lb), who are no more than 32 weeks' gestational age when usual medical management (such as fluid restriction, diuretics, and respiratory support) is not effective.[23]

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Ibuprofen brand namesIbuprofen/paracetamolHydrocodone/ibuprofen
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