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Kuomintang

The meaning of «kuomintang»

The Kuomintang (KMT) (Chinese: 國民黨; pinyin: Guómíndǎng), often referred to in English as the Nationalist Party or Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP), is a major political party in Taiwan (Republic of China), based in Taipei. Formed in 1919, the KMT was the sole ruling party of the Republic of China from 1928 to 2000 and is currently an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

The predecessor of the Kuomintang, the Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui), was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing dynasty, the subsequent revolt in 1911, and the proclamation of the Republic of China. The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Sun was the provisional President, but he ceded the presidency to Yuan Shikai. Yuan's death in 1916 led to the nation's disintegration in the Warlord Era. Sun deputed Chiang Kai-shek to form the National Revolutionary Army and launch the Northern Expedition that unified much of mainland China and established the capital at Nanjing. During the following Nanjing decade China achieved substantial economic growth and social progress, but the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was disastrous. After the loss of the Chinese Civil War (1945–1949) to the Communist Party of China the KMT retreated to Taiwan where it continued to govern as an authoritarian one-party state. The Nationalist government retained China's United Nations seat until 1971.

Taiwan ceased to be a single-party state in 1986 under President Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Kai-shek's son, and political reforms beginning in the 1990s under President Lee Teng-hui loosened the KMT's grip on power. Nevertheless, the KMT remains one of Taiwan's main political parties, with Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, being the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. In the 2016 general and presidential election, the KMT was defeated in both elections and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) gained control of both the Legislative Yuan and the presidency, Tsai Ing-wen being elected President.

The party's guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union. Together with the People First Party and New Party, the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese Pan-Blue Coalition which supports eventual unification with the mainland. However, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan as political realities make the reunification of China unlikely. The KMT holds to the one-China policy in that it officially considers that there is only one China, but that the Republic of China rather than the People's Republic of China is its legitimate government under the 1992 Consensus. To ease tensions with the PRC, the KMT has since 2008 endorsed the Three Noes policy as defined by Ma Ying-jeou, namely no unification, no independence and no use of force.[16]

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