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Kupang

The meaning of «kupang»

Kupang (Indonesian: Kota Kupang, Indonesian pronunciation: [ˈkupaŋ]) is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara. As of 2020, it had a population of 442,758.[4] It is the largest city and port on the island of Timor, and is a part of the Timor Leste-Indonesia-Australia Growth Triangle free trade zone.[5]

Kupang was an important port and trading post during the Portuguese and Dutch colonial eras. There are still ruins and remnants of the colonial presence in the city.

Representatives of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) first encountered Kupang in 1613 after having conquered the Portuguese fort on the island of Solor. At this time the area of the city was governed by a Raja of the Helong tribe, who claimed descent from the island of Ceram in the Maluku archipelago. Kupang occupied an ideal strategic position to exercise control over parts of Timor since it was possible to monitor shipping activities along the south coast of the island from the location. Moreover, the Koinino River provided a supply of fresh water for the city.

An agreement was reached between the VOC and the Helong tribe, but due to a lack of VOC presence on Timor, Kupang was heavily influenced by the Portuguese mestizo population of Flores, the Topasses, which led to the establishment of a Portuguese stronghold by the 1640s. However, by 1646, the VOC was firmly established on the nearby island of Solor, and renewed their agreement with the local Raja of Kupang.[6] In January 1653, a Dutch fortification, Fort Concordia, was built on an elevated position on the left bank of the river estuary. Kupang then became the base of the Dutch struggle against the Portuguese. After a series of defeats were inflicted on the Dutch in between 1655 and 1657, large groups of refugees from the neighbouring VOC allies of the Sonbai and Amabi principalities settled into the vicinity of Kupang and formed small polities on land that had traditionally belonged to the Helong. They were followed by two other groups, the Amfoan and the Taebenu, who arrived in 1683 and 1688, respectively. The Helong Raja remained the "Lord of the Land" (tuan tanah) but remained closely dependent on VOC authorities. However, apart from the territory of the Helong, the island of Timor was largely dominated by the Portuguese until 1749.[7]

The Dutch established a European-modelled administration with a chief executive (opperhoofd) and a council, which regulated affairs with the indigenous population through regular meetings (vergaderingen), and which also handled affairs with the nearby VOC-allied islands of Rote, Savu, and Solor. Chinese traders and artisans were settled by the early 18th century and soon became an indispensable part of the local economy. The area of the town was also settled by various indigenous groups from the region, and by mardijkers (who were the descendants of freed slaves under Dutch jurisdiction). In 1752, the population consisted of 827 Christians and an unspecified number of non-Christians.[8] The political importance of Kupang increased greatly in 1749 when the Topasses were decisively defeated by the Dutch and their allies, which led to the extension of VOC influence over wide areas of western and central Timor. Nevertheless, Dutch influence on the island was somewhat diminished after 1761 due to incompetence and inaction on part of the colonial administration.

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Kupang RegencyMalay trade and creole languagesKupang, Kedah
Kupang LRT stationKupang (disambiguation)El Tari International Airport
Kupang (state constituency)Kampong KupangKuang-Chi

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