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The meaning of «kyoto»

Kyoto (/ˈkjoʊtoʊ/;[3] Japanese: 京都, Kyōto [kʲoꜜːto] (listen)), officially Kyoto City (京都市, Kyōto-shi, [kʲoːtoꜜɕi] (listen)), is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin metropolitan area along with Osaka and Kobe. As of 2021, the city with a population of 1.45 million, making up 57% of the prefecture's total population. The city is the cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Kyoto, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 3.8 million people in 2020 and ranking as the second MSA in the Kansai region.

Kyoto is one of the oldest municipalities in Japan, Heian-kyō was chosen as the new seat of Japan's imperial court by Emperor Kanmu. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an. The emperors of Japan ruled from Kyoto in the following eleven centuries until 1869. It was the scene of several key events of the Muromachi period, Sengoku period, and the Boshin War, such as the Ōnin War, the Honnō-ji Incident, the Kinmon incident and the Battle of Toba–Fushimi. Upon the Imperial Court victory over the Tokugawa shogunate, the capital was relocated to Tokyo after the Meiji Restoration. The modern municipality of Kyoto was established in 1889. The city was spared from large-scale destruction during World War II and as a result, its prewar cultural heritage has mostly been preserved.

Kyoto is considered the cultural capital of Japan and a major tourist destination. It is home to numerous Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, palaces and gardens, some of which are listed collectively by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Prominent landmarks include the Kyoto Imperial Palace, Kiyomizu-dera, Kinkaku-ji, Ginkaku-ji and the Katsura Imperial Villa. Kyoto is also a center of higher learning, with Kyoto University being an institution of international renown.

In Japanese, Kyoto was previously called Kyō (京), Miyako (都), or Kyō no Miyako (京の都). In the 11th century, the city was renamed "Kyōto" (京都, "capital city"), from the Middle Chinese kiang-tuo (cf. Mandarin jīngdū).[4] After the city of Edo was renamed "Tōkyō" (東京, meaning "Eastern Capital") in 1868 and the seat of the emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as "Saikyō" (西京, meaning "Western Capital"). Kyoto is also sometimes called the thousand-year capital (千年の都).

The National Diet never officially passed any law designating a capital.[5] Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto, Miaco and Meaco, utilized mainly by Dutch cartographers. Another term commonly used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi (京師), "capital".[6]

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