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The meaning of «latanoprost»

Latanoprost, sold under the brand name Xalatan among others, is a medication used to treat increased pressure inside the eye.[1] This includes ocular hypertension and open angle glaucoma.[1] It is applied as eye drops to the eyes.[1] Onset of effects is usually within four hours, and they last for up to a day.[1]

Common side effects include blurry vision, redness of the eye, itchiness, and darkening of the iris.[1] Latanoprost is in the prostaglandin analogue family of medications.[1] It works by increasing the outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes through the uveoscleral tract.[2]

Latanoprost was approved for medical use in the United States in 1996.[1] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[3] Latanoprost is available as a generic medication.[4] In 2018, it was the 84th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States with more than 8 million prescriptions.[5][6]

In people with ocular hypertension (intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥21 mm Hg) including open-angle glaucoma, treatment with latanoprost reduced IOP levels by 22 to 39% over 1 to 12 months’ treatment. Latanoprost was more effective than timolol 0.5% twice daily in 3 of 4 large (n = 163 to 267) randomised, double-blind trials. Latanoprost demonstrated a stable long-term IOP-lowering effect in 1- or 2-year continuations of these trials, with no sign of diminishing effect during prolonged treatment.[7]

Meta-analysis suggests that latanoprost is more effective than timolol in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP). However, it often causes iris pigmentation. While current[when?] evidence suggests that this pigmentation is benign, careful lifetime evaluation of patients is still justified.[8]

Patients who had elevated IOP despite iridotomy and/or iridectomy (including patients of Asian descent), latanoprost was significantly more effective than timolol in two double-blind, monotherapy trials (8.2 and 8.8 mm Hg vs 5.2 and 5.7 mm Hg for latanoprost vs timolol at 12 and 2 weeks, respectively).[9]

Listed from most to least common:[10][11]

Research suggests that wiping the eye with an absorbent pad after the administration of eye drops can result in shorter eyelashes and a lesser chance of hyperpigmentation in the eyelid, compared to not wiping off excess fluid.[13]

Use in pregnant women is limited due to high incidence of abortion shown in animal experiments. Because of this, latanoprost is classified as risk factor C (adverse events were observed in animal reproduction studies at maternally toxic doses) according to United States Food and Drug Administration's use-in-pregnancy ratings.[14] Drug excretion in breast milk is unknown.[2]

Interactions are similar to other prostaglandin analogs. Paradoxically, the concomitant use of latanoprost and bimatoprost or other prostaglandins may result in increased intraocular pressure. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce or increase the effect of latanoprost.[10][11]

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