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List of latin-script digraphs

The meaning of «list of latin-script digraphs»

This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets. Capitalisation involves only the first letter (ch becomes Ch) unless otherwise stated (ij becomes IJ).

Letters with diacritics are arranged in alphabetic order according to their base: ⟨å⟩ is alphabetised with ⟨a⟩, not at the end of the alphabet, as it would be in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. Substantially-modified letters, such as ⟨ſ ⟩ (a variant of ⟨s⟩) and ⟨ɔ⟩ (based on ⟨o⟩), are placed at the end.

ʼb⟩ (capital ⟨ʼB⟩) is used in the Bari alphabet for /ɓ/.

ʼd⟩ (capital ⟨ʼD⟩) is used in the Bari alphabet for /ɗ/.

ʼy⟩ (capital ⟨ʼY⟩) is used in the Bari alphabet for /ʔʲ/. It is also used for this sound in the Hausa language in Nigeria, but in Niger, Hausa ⟨ʼy⟩ is replaced with ⟨ƴ ⟩.

⟩ is used in Taa orthography, where it represents the glottalized or creaky-voiced vowel /a̰/.

aa⟩ is used in the orthographies of Dutch, Finnish and other languages with phonemic long vowels for /aː/. It is also used in the orthographies of some English and Scots dialects, such as Northumbrian and Shetlandic, to represent /aː/. It was formerly used in Danish and Norwegian (and still is in some proper names) to represent a single vowel, which in Danish is often [ɔ] or [ʌ], until it was replaced with the letter ⟨å⟩. There is a ligature ⟨Ꜳ⟩.

ae⟩ is used in Irish orthography, where it represents /eː/ between two "broad" (velarized) consonants, e.g. Gael /ɡˠeːlˠ/ ('a Gael').

ãe⟩ is used in Portuguese orthography for /ɐ̃ĩ̯/.

ah⟩ is used in Taa orthography, where it represents the breathy or murmured /a̤/. In German and English it typically represents a long vowel /ɑː/.

ai⟩ is used in many languages, typically representing the diphthong /aɪ/. In English, as a result of the Great Vowel Shift, the vowel of ⟨ai⟩ has shifted from this value to /eɪ/ as in pain and rain, while it may have a sound of /ə/ in unstressed syllables like bargain and certain(ly), or /ɛ/ in the stressed syllable of again(st) (AmE), depending on the word; while in French, a different change, monophthongization, has occurred, resulting in the digraph representing /ɛ/. A similar change has also occurred during the development of Greek, resulting in ⟨αι⟩ and the ⟨ε⟩ both having the same sound; originally /ɛ/, later /e/. In German orthography, it represents /aɪ/ as in Kaiser (which derived from Latin caesar). However, most German words use ⟨ei⟩ for /aɪ/. In the Kernowek Standard orthography of Cornish, it represents /eː/, mostly in loanwords from English such as paint.[1]

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