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The meaning of «mrap»

Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP; /ˈɛmræp/ EM-rap) is a term for United States military light tactical vehicles produced as part of the MRAP program that are designed specifically to withstand improvised explosive device (IED) attacks and ambushes.[1] The United States Department of Defense MRAP program began in 2007 as a response to the increased threat of IEDs during the Iraq War.[2] From 2007 until 2012, the MRAP program deployed more than 12,000 vehicles in the Iraq War and War in Afghanistan.

Production of MRAP vehicles officially ended in 2012.[1] This was followed by the MRAP All Terrain (M-ATV) vehicle. In 2015, Oshkosh Corporation was awarded a contract to build the Oshkosh L-ATV as the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, a lighter mine-resistant vehicle to replace the Humvee in combat roles and supplement the M-ATV.[3]

Light armored vehicles designed specifically to resist land mines were first introduced in specialized vehicles in the 1970s by the Rhodesian Army, and further developed by South African manufacturers, starting in 1974 with the Hippo armored personnel carrier (APC).[4][5] The Casspir infantry mobility vehicle was developed for the South African Defence Force after 1980;[6] this was the inspiration for the American MRAP program and the basis for some of the program's vehicles.[7][8][9]

In 2004, the TSG/FPI Cougar was designed by a British-led U.S. team, to a U.S. Marine Corps requirement. It became the springboard from which the MRAP program was launched.[10][11] Because there are only two "armor quality" steel mills in the U.S., the Russian-owned Oregon Steel Mills and the International Steel Group (now part of the Indian firm ArcelorMittal), qualified to produce steel armor for the U.S. Department of Defense, it negotiated to ensure enough steel was available to keep pace with production.[12]

The U.S. military's MRAP program was prompted by U.S. casualties from IEDs during the Iraq War.[2]

A number of designs of vehicles from various vendors were deployed as part of the MRAP program. MRAP vehicles usually have "V"-shaped hulls to deflect explosive forces from land mines or IEDs below the vehicle, thereby protecting vehicle and passengers.[14] MRAPs weigh 14 to 18 tons, 9 feet high, and cost between US$500,000 and US$1,000,000.[14][15]

The following companies submitted designs:

There were plans to integrate the Crows II remote weapon station, the Frag Kit 6 anti-EFP armor, and the Boomerang anti-sniper system on many MRAPs in combat.[citation needed]

The MRAP class is separated into three categories according to weight and size.

The Mine-Resistant Utility Vehicle (MRUV) is smaller and lighter, designed for urban operations. Category 1 MRAP vehicles ordered or in service:

The Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Rapid Response Vehicle (JERRV) is designed for missions including convoy lead, troop transport, ambulance, explosive ordnance disposal and combat engineering.

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