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Ntfs

The meaning of «ntfs»

New Technology File System (NTFS) is a proprietary journaling file system developed by Microsoft.[2][1] Starting with Windows NT 3.1, it is the default file system of the Windows NT family.[11] It superseded File Allocation Table (FAT) as the preferred filesystem on Windows but is supported in Linux and BSD as well. NTFS reading and writing support is provided using a free and open-source kernel implementation known as NTFS3 in Linux and the NTFS-3G driver in BSD.[12][13] Windows can convert FAT32/16/12 into NTFS without the need to rewrite all files.[14] NTFS uses several files typically hidden from the user to store metadata about other files stored on the drive which can help improve speed and performance when reading data.[1] Unlike FAT and High Performance File System (HPFS), NTFS supports access control lists (ACLs), filesystem encryption, transparent compression, sparse files and file system journaling. NTFS also supports shadow copy to allow backups of a system while it is running, but the functionality of the shadow copies varies between different versions of Windows.[15]

In the mid-1980s, Microsoft and IBM formed a joint project to create the next generation of graphical operating system; the result was OS/2 and HPFS. Because Microsoft disagreed with IBM on many important issues, they eventually separated; OS/2 remained an IBM project and Microsoft worked to develop Windows NT and NTFS.

The HPFS file system for OS/2 contained several important new features. When Microsoft created their new operating system, they "borrowed" many of these concepts for NTFS.[16] The original NTFS developers were Tom Miller, Gary Kimura, Brian Andrew, and David Goebel.[17]

Probably as a result of this common ancestry, HPFS and NTFS use the same disk partition identification type code (07). Using the same Partition ID Record Number is highly unusual, since there were dozens of unused code numbers available, and other major file systems have their own codes. For example, FAT has more than nine (one each for FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, etc.). Algorithms identifying the file system in a partition type 07 must perform additional checks to distinguish between HPFS and NTFS.

Microsoft has released five versions of NTFS:

The NTFS.sys version number (e.g. v5.0 in Windows 2000) is based on the operating system version; it should not be confused with the NTFS version number (v3.1 since Windows XP).[21]

Although subsequent versions of Windows added new file system-related features, they did not change NTFS itself. For example, Windows Vista implemented NTFS symbolic links, Transactional NTFS, partition shrinking, and self-healing.[22] NTFS symbolic links are a new feature in the file system; all the others are new operating system features that make use of NTFS features already in place.

NTFS is optimized for 4 KB clusters, but supports a maximum cluster size of 2 MB. (Earlier implementations support up to 64 KB)[6] The maximum NTFS volume size that the specification can support is 264 − 1 clusters, but not all implementations achieve this theoretical maximum, as discussed below.

Related Searches

NTFS linksNTFS reparse pointNTFS-3G
NTFS volume mount pointNTFSDOSNtfsprogs
NtfsresizeEncrypting File SystemBIOS parameter block

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