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Odisha

The meaning of «odisha»

Odisha (English: /əˈdɪsə/,[12] Odia: [oɽiˈsa] (listen)), formerly Orissa (/ɒˈrɪsə, ɔː-, oʊ-/[13]), is an Indian state located in Eastern India. It is the 8th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state has the third largest population of Scheduled Tribes in India.[14] It neighbours the states of West Bengal and Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west, Andhra Pradesh to the south, and a very negligible border with Telangana to the southwest. Odisha has a coastline of 485 kilometres (301 mi) along the Bay of Bengal.[15] The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana".[16] The language of Odisha is Odia, which is one of the Classical Languages of India.[17]

The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka (which was again won back from them by king Kharavela) in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha.[18] The modern boundaries of Odisha were demarcated by the British Indian government when Orissa Province was established on 1 April 1936, consisting of the Odia-speaking districts of Bihar and Orissa Province.[18] The first of April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa.[19] Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135,[20] after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.[21]

The economy of Odisha is the 16th-largest state economy in India with ₹5.33 lakh crore (US$71 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹116,614 (US$1,500).[3] Odisha ranks 32nd among Indian states in human development index.[22]

The term "Odisha/Orissa" (Odia: ଓଡ଼ିଶା) is derived from the ancient Prakrit word "Odda Visaya" (also "Udra Bibhasha" or "Odra Bibhasha") as in the Tirumalai inscription of Rajendra Chola I, which is dated to 1025.[23] Sarala Das, who translated the Mahabharata into the Odia language in the 15th century, calls the region 'Odra Rashtra' as Odisha. The inscriptions of Kapilendra Deva of the Gajapati Kingdom (1435–67) on the walls of temples in Puri call the region Odisha or Odisha Rajya.[24]

In 2011 the English rendering of ଓଡ଼ିଶା was changed from "Orissa" to "Odisha", and the name of its language from "Oriya" to "Odia", by the passage of the Orissa (Alteration of Name) Bill, 2010 and the Constitution (113th Amendment) Bill, 2010 in the Parliament. The Hindi rendering उड़ीसा (uṛīsa) was also modified to ओड़िशा (oḍisha). After a brief debate, the lower house, Lok Sabha, passed the bill and amendment on 9 November 2010.[25] On 24 March 2011, Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament, also passed the bill and the amendment.[26] The changes in spelling was made so that English and Hindi would conform to Odia transcription.[27]

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