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Ophthalmology

The meaning of «ophthalmology»

Ophthalmology (/ˌɒfθælˈmɒlədʒi/)[1] is a branch of medicine and surgery which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders.[2] An ophthalmologist is a specialist in ophthalmology.[3] The credentials include a degree in medicine, followed by additional four to five years of ophthalmology residency training. Ophthalmology residency training programs may require a one-year pre-residency training in internal medicine, pediatrics, or general surgery. Additional specialty training (or fellowship) may be sought in a particular aspect of eye pathology.[4] Ophthalmologists are allowed to use medications to treat eye diseases, implement laser therapy, and perform surgery when needed.[5] Ophthalmologists may participate in academic research on the diagnosis and treatment for eye disorders.[6]

A partial list of the most common diseases treated by Ophthalmologists include:[7]

Following are examples of methods of diagnosis performed in an eye examination

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a medical technological platform used to assess ocular structures. The information is then utilized by physicians/doctors to assess staging of pathological processes and confirm clinical diagnoses. Subsequent OCT scans are used to assess the efficacy managing diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma.

Ultrasonography of the eyes may be performed.

Eye surgery, also known as ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa by an ophthalmologist. The eye is a fragile organ, and requires extreme care before, during, and after a surgical procedure. An eye surgeon is responsible for selecting the appropriate surgical procedure for the patient, and for taking the necessary safety precautions.

Ophthalmology includes subspecialities that deal either with certain diseases or diseases of certain parts of the eye. Some of them are:[8]

The Greek roots of the word ophthalmology are ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmos, "eye") and -λoγία (-logia, "study, discourse"),[11][12] i.e., "the study of eyes". The discipline applies to all animal eyes, whether human or not, since the practice and procedures are quite similar with respect to disease processes, while differences in anatomy or disease prevalence, whether subtle or substantial, may differentiate the two.[citation needed]

In the Ebers Papyrus from ancient Egypt dating to 1550 BC, a section is devoted to eye diseases.[2]

The pre-Hippocratics largely based their anatomical conceptions of the eye on speculation, rather than empiricism.[2] They recognized the sclera and transparent cornea running flushly as the outer coating of the eye, with an inner layer with pupil, and a fluid at the centre. It was believed, by Alcamaeon (5th century BC) and others, that this fluid was the medium of vision and flowed from the eye to the brain by a tube. Aristotle advanced such ideas with empiricism. He dissected the eyes of animals, and discovering three layers (not two), found that the fluid was of a constant consistency with the lens forming (or congealing) after death, and the surrounding layers were seen to be juxtaposed. He and his contemporaries further put forth the existence of three tubes leading from the eye, not one. One tube from each eye met within the skull.

Related Searches

Ophthalmology in medieval IslamOphthalmology (journal)American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Allied AcademiesOphthalmology (disambiguation)Eye surgery
Ophthalmological Hospital (Nouakchott)Pulsus GroupKarger Publishers

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