Home »

Population transfer

The meaning of «population transfer»

Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development. Banishment or exile is a similar process, but is forcibly applied to individuals and groups.

Often the affected population is transferred by force to a distant region, perhaps not suited to their way of life, causing them substantial harm. In addition, the process implies the loss of all immovable property and (when rushed) of substantial amounts of movable property. This transfer may be motivated by the more powerful party's desire to make other uses of the land in question or, less often, by disastrous environmental or economic conditions that require relocation.

The first known population transfers date back to Ancient Assyria in the 13th century BCE. The last major population transfer in Europe was the deportation of 800,000 ethnic Albanians, during the Kosovo war in 1999.[1] The single largest population transfer in history was the flight and expulsion of Germans after World War II, which involved more than 12 million people. Moreover, some of the largest population transfers in Europe have been attributed to the ethnic policies of the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. The best-known recent example caused by economic development is that resulting from the construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China. Population transfer differs more than simply technically from individually motivated migration, but at times of war, the act of fleeing from danger or famine often blurs the differences. If a state can preserve the fiction that migrations are the result of innumerable "personal" decisions, the state may be able to claim that it is not to blame for the expulsions.

The earliest known examples of population transfers took place in the context of war and empire. As part of Sennacherib's campaign against King Hezekiah of Jerusalem (701 BCE) "200,150 people great and small, male and female" were transferred to other lands in the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Similar population transfers occurred under the Persian and Byzantine Empires. Population transfers are considered incompatible with the values of post-Enlightenment European societies, but this was usually limited to the home territory of the colonial power itself, and population transfers continued in European colonies during the 20th century.[2]

Population exchange is the transfer of two populations in opposite directions at about the same time. In theory at least, the exchange is non-forcible, but the reality of the effects of these exchanges has always been unequal, and at least one half of the so-called "exchange" has usually been forced by the stronger or richer participant. Such exchanges have taken place several times in the 20th century:

This refers to the practice of enacting immigration policies to relocate parts of an ethnically and/or culturally dominant population into a region populated by an ethnic minority or otherwise culturally different or non-mainstream group, in order to dilute, and eventually transform the native ethnic population into the mainstream culture over time. An example is the Sinicization of Tibet.

Related Searches

Population transfer in the Soviet UnionPopulation exchange between Bulgaria and RomaniaMitma
© 2015-2021, Wikiwordbook.info
Copying information without reference to the source is prohibited!
contact us mobile version