An **RLC circuit** is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor (R), an inductor (L), and a capacitor (C), connected in series or in parallel. The name of the circuit is derived from the letters that are used to denote the constituent components of this circuit, where the sequence of the components may vary from RLC.

The circuit forms a harmonic oscillator for current, and resonates in a similar way as an LC circuit. Introducing the resistor increases the decay of these oscillations, which is also known as damping. The resistor also reduces the peak resonant frequency. In ordinary conditions, some resistance is unavoidable even if a resistor is not specifically included as a component; an ideal, pure LC circuit exists only in the domain of superconductivity, a physical effect demonstrated to this point only at temperatures far below and/or pressures far above what are found naturally anywhere on the Earth's surface.

RLC circuits have many applications as oscillator circuits. Radio receivers and television sets use them for tuning to select a narrow frequency range from ambient radio waves. In this role, the circuit is often referred to as a tuned circuit. An RLC circuit can be used as a band-pass filter, band-stop filter, low-pass filter or high-pass filter. The tuning application, for instance, is an example of band-pass filtering. The RLC filter is described as a second-order circuit, meaning that any voltage or current in the circuit can be described by a second-order differential equation in circuit analysis.

The three circuit elements, R, L and C, can be combined in a number of different topologies. All three elements in series or all three elements in parallel are the simplest in concept and the most straightforward to analyse. There are, however, other arrangements, some with practical importance in real circuits. One issue often encountered is the need to take into account inductor resistance. Inductors are typically constructed from coils of wire, the resistance of which is not usually desirable, but it often has a significant effect on the circuit.

An important property of this circuit is its ability to resonate at a specific frequency, the resonance frequency, f0. Frequencies are measured in units of hertz. In this article, angular frequency, ω0, is used because it is more mathematically convenient. This is measured in radians per second. They are related to each other by a simple proportion,

Resonance occurs because energy for this situation is stored in two different ways: in an electric field as the capacitor is charged and in a magnetic field as current flows through the inductor. Energy can be transferred from one to the other within the circuit and this can be oscillatory. A mechanical analogy is a weight suspended on a spring which will oscillate up and down when released. This is no passing metaphor; a weight on a spring is described by exactly the same second order differential equation as an RLC circuit and for all the properties of the one system there will be found an analogous property of the other. The mechanical property answering to the resistor in the circuit is friction in the spring–weight system. Friction will slowly bring any oscillation to a halt if there is no external force driving it. Likewise, the resistance in an RLC circuit will "damp" the oscillation, diminishing it with time if there is no driving AC power source in the circuit.