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Racism in japan

The meaning of «racism in japan»

The national census shows the majority of Japan's citizens identify as Japanese, approximately 97.8% as of 2018, according to the Japanese Statistics Bureau.[1] Japanese people make up 98.1%, Chinese 0.5%, Korean 0.4%, and other 1% (includes Filipino, Vietnamese, and Brazilian) of people living in Japan, according to the CIA World Handbook.

According to census statistics in 2018, 97.8% of the population of Japan are Japanese, with the remainder being foreign nationals residing in Japan.[1] The number of foreign workers has increased dramatically in recent years, due to the aging population and a shrinking labor force. A news article in 2018 suggests that approximately 1 out of 10 young population residing in Tokyo are foreign nationals.[2]

In the early 20th century, driven by an ideology of national unity, the Japanese government identified and forcefully assimilated marginalized populations, which included Ryukyuans, Ainu, and other underrepresented groups, imposing assimilation programs in language, culture and religion.[3]

About 2.2% of Japan's total legal resident population are foreign citizens. Of these, according to 2018 data from the Japanese government, the principal groups are as follows.[1][5]

The above statistics do not include the approximately 30,000 U.S. military stationed in Japan, nor do they account for illegal immigrants. The statistics also do not take into account naturalized citizens from backgrounds including but not limited to Korean and Chinese, and citizen descendants of immigrants. The total legal resident population of 2012 is estimated at 127.6 million.

The nine largest minority groups residing in Japan are: North and South Korean, Chinese, Brazilian (many Brazilians in Japan have Japanese ancestors), Filipinos, Taiwanese, the Ainu indigenous to Hokkaido and the Ryukyuans indigenous to Okinawa and other islands between Kyushu and Taiwan.[6] The Burakumin, an outcast group at the bottom of Japan's feudal order, are sometimes included.[7] There are also a number of smaller ethnic communities in Japan with a much shorter history.

According to the United Nations' 2008 Diène report, communities most affected by racism and xenophobia in Japan include:[8]

Prior to World War II, Koreans sought asylum and educational opportunities that were available in Japan.[citation needed] In 1910, the Japan-Korean Annexation Treaty was established and stated that Koreans were to be considered Japanese as citizenship by law as Korea was annexed by Japan. During World War II, Japanese government established the National Mobilization Law, which constrained Koreans from getting jobs, which were very limited for Koreans even prior to World War II. Koreans that were not constricted were forced to work in factories and mines in inhumane conditions;[citation needed] an estimated 60,000 Koreans died because of work conditions. Following World War II, Koreans decided to participate in the Post-world war II illegally because of the unfair treatment and wages in Japan both politically and economically. Zainichi (resident in Japan) Koreans are permanent residents of Japan registered as Joseon (Korean: 조선, Japanese: Chōsen (朝鮮)) or South Korean nationality. Joseon was annexed by Japan in 1910, therefore Zainichi Koreans with Joseon citizenship are de facto stateless. After World War II, 2 million Koreans living in Japan were granted a temporary Joseon nationality under the US military government (because there was no government in Korea then). However, the meaning of Joseon nationality became vague as Korea was divided by the United States and the Soviet Union, and in 1948 North and South Korea each established their own government. Some obtained South Korean citizenship later, but others who opposed the division of Korea or sympathized with North Korea maintained their Joseon nationality because people are not allowed to register North Korean nationality.[citation needed]

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