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South west african zwillinge

The meaning of «south west african zwillinge»

The South West African Zwillinge 0-6-0T of 1898 was a narrow gauge steam locomotive from the German South West Africa era.

Between 1898 and 1905, more than fifty pairs of Zwillinge twin 0-6-0T steam locomotives were delivered to the Swakopmund-Windhuk Staatsbahn (Swakopmund-Windhoek State Railway) in German South West Africa. By 1922, only two of these locomotives remained to be taken onto the roster of the South African Railways.[1][2]

The first troops of the German Feldbahn-Baukommando (field railway construction commando) arrived in Swakopmund in German South West Africa (GSWA) on 11 September 1897. They were tasked to build a narrow gauge railway across the Namib Desert from Swakopmund to Windhoek, via Jakkalswater and Karibib. The 382-kilometre long (237-mile) Swakopmund-Windhuk Staatsbahn, later named the Northern State Railway or Nordbahn, was officially opened to traffic nearly five years later, on 1 July 1902.[2][3]

The railway was initially intended for temporary military purposes only, to be worked by means of animal power such as Argentine mules or Cape donkeys, but steam traction was soon adopted. The track was laid on steel sleepers with 19 pounds per yard (9 kilograms per metre) rail and had very severe curves and gradients. Climbing out of the Khan River gorge, the gradient was 1 in 19 (5¼%) with curves of 180-foot radius (55-metre).[2]

In 1905, a 14-kilometre long (9-mile) branch line was constructed from Karibib on the Nordbahn to Onguati near Usakos, where it connected with the new Otavi line from Swakopmund to Tsumeb. This created an alternative line from Windhoek to the Atlantic Ocean at times when the section through the Khan River gorge suffered from the occasional flooding. The Nordbahn section between Swakopmund and Karibib was later abandoned and, between 1911 and 1913, the 119-mile long (192-kilometre) section between Karibib and Windhoek was regauged to Cape gauge.[2][4]

Zwillinge locomotives, the first engines to enter service on the Nordbahn, were a class of small 600 millimetres (23.6 inches) narrow gauge paired 0-6-0T steam locomotives. They were built in Germany in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century for military railways in Germany and the German Empire. The first large consignment of Zwillinge locomotives arrived in Swakopmund between 1898 and 1899. Eventually, by 1905, more than fifty new or used pairs had been delivered to the Swakopmund-Windhuk Staatsbahn.[1][2]

They were built by six manufacturers, Krauss and Company, Henschel and Son, L. Schwartzkopff, Egestorf, Machinenbau Anstalt and Arnold Jung. These so-called Feldbahn locomotives, built for the military, were also used in other German colonies and several came to GSWA second-hand.[1]

The final batch of four pairs of Zwillinge for the Swakopmund-Windhuk Staatsbahn were built by Krauss in 1903 with works numbers 4875 to 4878 and engine numbers 179 to 182 A and B.[5]

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