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Srb uprising

The meaning of «srb uprising»

Srb uprising (Serbo-Croatian: Устанак у Србу / Ustanak u Srbu) was a rebellion against the Independent State of Croatia (Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) that began on 27 July 1941 in Srb, a village in the region of Lika. The uprising was started by the local population as a response to persecutions of Serbs by the Ustaše and was led by Chetniks and Yugoslav Partisans. It soon spread across Lika and Bosanska Krajina. During the uprising numerous war crimes were committed against local Croat and Muslim population, especially in the area of Kulen Vakuf. As NDH forces lacked the strength to suppress the uprising, the Italian Army, which was not a target of the rebels, expanded its zone of influence to Lika and parts of Bosanska Krajina.

Until 1990, 27 July was a national holiday in the Socialist Republic of Croatia called "Uprising Day of the People of Croatia". After the independence of Croatia, 22 June was chosen as the Anti-Fascist Struggle Day and a national holiday.

On 6 April 1941, the German Reich invaded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During the Invasion of Yugoslavia, Ustaše, a Croat fascist and ultranationalist organization aboard, proclaimed the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) on 10 April 1941, supported by Germany and Italy.[1][2] By May 1941, the Ustaše formed the Jadovno concentration camp in Lika where they incarcerated and executed thousands of ethnic Serbs and other prisoners, which led to the rebellion. The Serbs were the majority in the Croatian Partisans until September 1943, and were absolute majority in the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland, better known as Chetniks.[3][better source needed]

Large scale persecutions in the area started in June 1941, including ethnic cleansing of around 1,200 Serbs who were expelled to occupied Serbia by Vjekoslav "Maks" Luburić, whereas in the municipality of Srb, days ahead of the rebellion, Luburić's Ustaše forces murdered 279 Serb civilians in the villages of Suvaja, Osredak and Bubanj.[4]

In June 1941, the Serbs started an uprising in eastern Herzegovina. The uprising was suppressed in early July, but peace was not established. NDH systematically persecuted the Serbian and Jewish populations throughout the country.[5] The Communists entered into open conflict with the regime after Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June.[6] However, they were not prepared for the July uprising nor did they order it. The rebellion was triggered by three individual rebels. On 26 July, a Home Guard officer was killed while driving from Drvar to Bosanski Petrovac. The NDH authorities then began arresting local peasants. Thus the local KPJ Committee was dragged into launching a full-scale rebellion.[7]

An uprising in Croatia and western Bosnia started on 27 July 1941 with Drvar uprising in the area of Drvar and Bosansko Grahovo in Bosnian Krajina.[6] The uprising was nominally under the command of the local Communists. However, the Communists were few in numbers and a large number of insurgents were influenced by the Chetniks and local pre-war politicians that spread anti-Croat propaganda and advocated for a Greater Serbia. The rebel groups attacked NDH institutions and ambushed Ustaše and Home Guard forces sent as reinforcements.[8] Although they were ideologically on different sides, the Chetniks and the Communists formed an alliance in order to balance against the increasing power of the Ustaše.[9]

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