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Svetlana alliluyeva

The meaning of «svetlana alliluyeva»

Svetlana Iosifovna Alliluyeva[a] (28 February 1926 – 22 November 2011), later known as Lana Peters, was the youngest child and only daughter of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and his second wife Nadezhda Alliluyeva. In 1967, she caused an international furor when she defected to the United States and, in 1978, became a naturalized citizen. From 1984 to 1986, she briefly returned to the Soviet Union and had her Soviet citizenship reinstated.[1] She was Stalin's last surviving child.[2]

Svetlana Alliluyeva was born on 28 February 1926.[4] As her mother was interested in pursuing a professional career Alexandra Bychokova was hired as a nanny to look after Alliluyeva and her older brother Vasily (born 1921). Alliluyeva and Bychokova became quite close, and remained friends for 30 years, until Bychokova died in 1956.[5]

On 9 November 1932 Alliluyeva's mother shot herself.[6] To conceal the suicide, the children were told that she had died of peritonitis, a complication from appendicitis. It would be 10 years before they learned the truth of their mother's death.[7]

On 15 August 1942, Winston Churchill saw Alliluyeva in Stalin's private apartments at the Kremlin, describing her as "a handsome red-haired girl, who kissed her father dutifully". Churchill says Stalin "looked at me with a twinkle in his eye as if, so I thought, to convey 'You see, even we Bolsheviks have a family life.'"[8]

At the age of sixteen, Alliluyeva fell in love with Aleksei Kapler, a Jewish Soviet filmmaker who was 38 years old. Her father vehemently disapproved of the relationship and Kapler was sentenced to five years of exile in 1943 to Vorkuta and was then sentenced again in 1948 to five years in labor camps near Inta.[9]

Alliluyeva was first married in 1944 to Grigory Morozov, a student at Moscow University's Institute of International Affairs.[10] Her father did not like Morozov, who was Jewish, though he never met him. They had one child, a son Iosif, who was born in 1945.[11] The couple divorced in 1947, but remained close friends for decades afterwards.[1][12]

Alliluyeva's second marriage was arranged for her to Yuri Zhdanov, the son of Stalin's right-hand man Andrei Zhdanov and himself one of Stalin's close associates. The couple married early in 1949. Alliluyeva lived with Zhdanov's family at this time, though felt herself dominated by his mother, Zinaida, which was something Stalin had warned her of.[13] Yuri was devoted to Zinaida, and busied himself with Party work, so did not spend a lot of time with Alliluyeva.[14] In 1950, Alliluyeva gave birth to a daughter, Yekaterina. The marriage was dissolved soon afterwards.[1]

In 1962 she married Ivan Svanidze, the nephew of Stalin's first wife, Kato Svanidze, soon after meeting him for the first time since his parents' arrest in 1937.[15] They went against Soviet policy by marrying in a church. Svanidze was not healthy, owing to difficulties of his internal exile in Kazakhstan, and the marriage ended within a year.[16]

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