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Svoboda (political party)

The meaning of «svoboda (political party)»

The All-Ukrainian Union "Freedom" (Ukrainian: Всеукраїнське об'єднання «Свобода», romanized: Vseukrainske obiednannia "Svoboda"), ofter referred to as Svoboda, is an ultranationalist political party in Ukraine.

It is positioned between the right-wing[2][8][9] and the far-right[12] of the political spectrum. It is widely considered a fascist and anti-semitic party, although others have disputed the neo-fascist label, simply considering it a radical nationalist party.[13][14][15][16]

The party was founded in 1991 as the Social-National Party of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Соціал-національна партія України) and acts as a populist proponent of extreme nationalism.[17]

The party was renamed Svoboda (meaning Freedom in Ukrainian) in 2004, and since then Oleh Tyahnybok has been party leader.[2][18] During the last two parliamentary elections,[when?] the party has failed to pass the electoral threshold, gaining 4.71% and 2.15% of support accordingly. Presently,[when?] Svoboda doesn't have a faction in the Ukrainian parliament.

The Social-National Party of Ukraine (SNPU) was registered as a party on 16 October 1995;[1][19] the constituent congress of the party took place on 13 October 1991, in Lviv. The party was established by the Soviet Afghan War veterans organization, the youth organization "Spadshchyna" (Heritage, headed by Andriy Parubiy), the Lviv Student Fraternity (headed by Oleh Tyahnybok), the Rukh Guard (headed by Yaroslav Andrushkiv and Yuriy Kryvoruchko).[20] Dr. Yaroslav Andrushkiv was elected leader of the party. The party adopted a party emblem that could be associated with fascist formation and in Europe is used by neo-Nazi organizations.[20]

Due to a corporate raid threat on temples of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Kyiv Patriarchate), there were created SNPU formations for their protection, particularly the Holy-Dormition Church of Volodymyr-Volynsky and the Saint Trinity Church in Lutsk.[21] Due to the 1993 Massandra Accords, SNPU formed the Extraordinary Committee in Rescue of Nation and State which in the fall of 1993 picketed the Ukrainian parliament in regards to eliminate the threat of loss by Ukraine the Crimea and Black Sea Fleet.[21]

The SNPU's official program defined itself as an "irreconcilable enemy of Communist ideology" and all other parties to be either collaborators and enemies of the Ukrainian revolution, or romanticists. According to Svoboda's website, during the 1994 Ukrainian parliamentary elections the party presented its platform as distinct from those of the communists and social democrats.[22]

In the 1998 parliamentary elections the party joined a bloc of parties (together with the All-Ukrainian Political Movement "State Independence of Ukraine")[23] called "Fewer Words" (Ukrainian: Менше слів), which collected 0.16% of the national vote.[19] Party member Oleh Tyahnybok[24] was voted into the Ukrainian Parliament in this election.[24] He became a member of the People's Movement of Ukraine faction.[24]

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