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Vladivostok

The meaning of «vladivostok»

Vladivostok (Russian: Владивосто́к, IPA: [vlədʲɪvɐˈstok] (listen), literally 'Ruler of the East', 'Rule the East', 'Lord of the East', or 'Expansion to the East'[11]) is a city and the administrative centre of the Far Eastern Federal District and Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea. On Chinese maps from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Vladivostok is called Yongmingcheng (永明城 [Yǒngmíngchéng], "city of eternal light")[citation needed]. The population of the city as of 2019[update] was 605,049,[12] up from 592,034 recorded in the 2010 Russian census.[13] Harbin in China is about 515 kilometres (320 mi) away, while Sapporo in Japan is about 775 kilometres (482 mi) east across the Sea of Japan. The city is the home port of the Russian Pacific Fleet and is the largest Russian port on the Pacific coast.

Vladivostok was first named in 1859 along with other features in the Peter the Great Gulf area by Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky. The name was first applied to the bay but, following an expedition by Alexey Shefner in 1860, was later applied to the new settlement.[14]

In Chinese, the city is in a place known since the Qing dynasty as Haishenwai (海參崴, Hǎishēnwǎi), from the Manchu Haišenwai (Manchu: ᡥᠠᡳᡧᡝᠨᠸᡝᡳ; Möllendorff: Haišenwai; Abkai: Haixenwai) or "small seaside village".[15]

In China, Vladivostok is now officially known by the transliteration 符拉迪沃斯托克 (Fúlādíwòsītuōkè), although the historical Chinese name 海参崴 (Hǎishēnwǎi) is still often used in common parlance and outside Mainland China to refer to the city.[16][17] According to the provisions of the Chinese government, all maps published in China have to bracket the city's Chinese name.[18]

The modern-day Japanese name of the city is transliterated as Urajiosutoku (ウラジオストク). Historically, the city was written in Kanji as 浦塩斯徳 and shortened to Urajio ウラジオ; 浦塩.[19]

The aboriginals of the territory on which modern Vladivostok is located are the Tungusic-speaking Udege minority, and a sub-minority called the Taz which emerged in the 1890s through members of the indigenous Udege mixing with the nearby Chinese and Hezhe. The region had been at least nominally part of many states, such as the Mohe, Balhae Kingdom, Liao Dynasty, Jīn Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty and various other East Asian dynasties, before Russia annexed Primorsky Krai and the island of Sakhalin by the Treaty of Beijing (1860). Qing China, which had just lost the Opium War with Britain, was unable to defend the region. The Manchu emperors of China, the Qing Dynasty, had banned Han Chinese from most of Manchuria including the Vladivostok area (see Willow Palisade)—it was only visited by illegal gatherers of ginseng and sea cucumbers.

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