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Vladivostok fortress

The meaning of «vladivostok fortress»

Vladivostok Fortress is a system of fortifications built from 1889 to 1918 in Vladivostok, Russia, and the surrounding area.

During construction, lessons from the Russo-Japanese War were taken into account, so that this is the most fortified of all the fortresses built at this time. Construction of the fortress was halted with the structure about 2/3 complete, due to the disruptive influence of the First World War and the October Revolution.

The fortress—created exclusively by Russian military engineers and builders, soldiers, combat engineers—was one of the most powerful maritime fortresses in the world. By the time of the First World War it was one of the few strongholds in the Russian far east. At the time, the fortress had about fifty shore batteries able to withstand the most powerful enemy ships, sixteen forts, and dozens of coastal caponiers, a number of strong points and land batteries. All the basic facilities were supplied with electricity and connected by roads and underground communication cables. It facilitated rapid deployment of minefields, together with the fleet. On several major forts, for protection against artillery fire, casemated barracks were erected, with more than three kilometers of galleries and six kilometers of tunnels.

On the land front – 1290 guns and 268 machine guns; including 572 ranged weapons, 718 melee weapons, 268 guns, 64 mortars, and 36 rocket machines.

On the coastal front – 316 guns and 56 machine guns; including 212 Ranged weapons, 104 melee weapons, 56 guns, 36 rocket machines.

The facilities, unlike those at Port Arthur, featured many casemated underground structures, the thickness of the concrete provided protection against fire from 280 millimetres (11 in) guns.

The garrison of the fortress was to consist of 48 infantry battalions, 15 fortress-artillery battalions, eight batteries of field and mountain artillery manned by two battalions, a battalion of miners, a telegraph battalion, a supply battalion, two aeronautics companies, and three Cossack squadrons.

The units stationed at the fortress consisted of:

By type and scope of fortification, construction can be divided into three stages:

The design of the fortress after 1905 took into account the shortcomings that caused the fall of Port Arthur in 1904, as well as the achievements of fortification science of the time. The construction was in a difficult-to-access mountainous area, with extensive use of rope. The use of cutting-edge construction technology, such as compressors, concrete mixers, power and other mechanization resulted in a high rate of construction.

On 5 September 1905 the peace treaty that ended the Russo-Japanese war was signed at Portsmouth. According to the agreement, Russia ceded Japan lease rights to the Liaodong Peninsula, including Port Arthur. Russia lost the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway Station at Kuanchentszy, the southern part of Sakhalin Island, and allowed the Japanese fishing rights in Russian territorial waters on unfavorable terms. Russia retained the right to keep only two cruisers and its remaining destroyers in the Pacific.

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