Home »

Women in the russian revolution

The meaning of «women in the russian revolution»

The Russian Revolutions of 1917 saw the collapse of the Russian Empire, a short-lived provisional government, and the creation of the world's first socialist state under the Bolsheviks. They made explicit commitments to promote the equality of men and women. Many early Russian feminists and ordinary Russian working women actively participated in the Revolution, and all were affected by the events of that period and the new policies of the Soviet Union.

The provisional government that took power after the February 1917 overthrow of the tsar promoted liberalism and made Russia the first major country to give women the right to vote. As soon as the Bolsheviks took power in October 1917, they liberalized laws on divorce and abortion, decriminalized homosexuality, and proclaimed a new higher status for women. Inessa Armand (1874-1920), Alexandra Kollontai (1872-1952), Nadezhda Krupskaya (1869-1939) and Aleksandra Artyukhina (1889–1969) were prominent Bolsheviks. A decade later Stalin was General Secretary and largely reversed the reforms, although a handful of women remained in highly visible public positions.[citation needed] Outside the Bolsheviks, Maria Spiridonova emerged as one of the main leaders of the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries and generally of the peasant movement: she chaired the Extraordinary All-Russia Congress Of Soviets Of Peasants' Deputies in late November 1917, and was later appointed head of the Peasant Section of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Soviet of Workers', Peasants', and Soldiers' Deputies (VTsIK) until July 1918.

The young Russian feminist movement was exhilarated by the uprising of 1905, which was followed by a liberalization of some of the tight restrictions on women, and the creation of a national parliament. However by 1908, the forces of reaction were pushing back hard, and feminists were in retreat. Women were barred from universities, and there was a general sense of despair among liberal forces. [1]

The outbreak of war in August 1914 was a surprise; the Empire was poorly prepared. As men were hurriedly put into uniform by the millions women took on new roles. The number of women workers in industrial centers rose to over one million as 250,000 women joined the workforce between 1914 and 1917. Peasant women also took on new roles, taking over some of their husbands' farm work.[2] Women fought directly in the war in small numbers on the front lines, often disguised as men, and thousands more served as nurses.[3] The social conditions of women during World War I affected the role they played in coming revolutions.[4]

The February Revolution toppled the tsarist regime and established a provisional government. A few women were highly visible in this revolution, especially those who gathered in mass protest on the International Women's Day to call for political rights. They gained rights under the provisional government, including the right to vote, to serve as attorneys, and equal rights in civil service. Women advocating for these kinds of political rights generally came from upper and middle-class background, while poorer women protested for "bread and peace."[5] Record numbers of women joined the Russian army. All women's combat units were put into place, the first of these forming in May 1917.[6]

© 2015-2021, Wikiwordbook.info
Copying information without reference to the source is prohibited!
contact us mobile version