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The meaning of «xoloitzcuintle»

The Xoloitzcuintle (or Xoloitzquintle, Xoloitzcuintli, or Xolo) is one of several breeds of hairless dog. It is found in Estándar (Standard), Intermedio (intermediate), and Miniatura (miniature) sizes. The Xolo also comes in a coated variety, totally covered in fur. Coated and hairless can be born in the same litter as a result of the same combination of genes. The hairless variant is known as the Perro pelón mexicano or Mexican hairless dog.[1] It is characterized by its duality, wrinkles, and dental abnormalities, along with a primitive temper. In Nahuatl, from which its name originates, it is xōlōitzcuintli [ʃoːloːit͡sˈkʷint͡ɬi] (singular)[2] and xōlōitzcuintin [ʃoːloːit͡sˈkʷintin] (plural).[2] The name comes from the god Xolotl that according to ancient narratives is its creator and itzcuīntli [it͡skʷiːnt͡ɬi], meaning dog in Nahuatl language.[2]

Ceramic sculptures of a hairless breed of dog have been found in burial sites in ancient West Mexico.[3] In ancient times, Xolos were often sacrificed and then buried with their owners to act as guides to the soul on its journey to the underworld. They have been found in burial sites of both the Maya and the Toltec.[4]

Sixteenth-century Spanish accounts tell of large numbers of dogs being served at banquets.[5] Aztec merchant feasts could have 80–100 turkeys and 20–40 dogs served as food.[6] When these two meats were served in the same dish, the dog meat was at the bottom of the dish, either because it was held in higher regard or because it was increasingly considered a step above cannibalism.[6]

The Aztecs consumed few domesticated animals, with over 90% of the bones found at archeological sites being deer.[6]

A 1999 genetic study using mitochondrial DNA found that the DNA sequences of the Xoloitzcuintle were identical to those of dogs from the Old World.[7] In 2018, an analysis of DNA from the entire genome indicated that domesticated dogs entered North America from Siberia for 4,500 years and were isolated for the next 9,000 years. After contact with Europeans, these lineages were replaced by Eurasian dogs. The pre-contact dogs exhibited a unique genetic signature that is now almost gone.[8] In 2020, the sequencing of ancient dog genomes indicates that in two Mexican breeds the Chihuahua retains 4% and the Xoloitzcuintli 3% pre-colonial ancestry.[9]

Their phenotype is a consequence of canine ectodermal dysplasia caused by a mutation on the Foxl3 autosomal gene.[10]

The breed did not receive any official notice in its homeland until the 1950s. The FCI, founded in 1940, was not prepared to declare the Xolo an official purebred at that time. According to breed historian Norman Pelham Wright, author of The Enigma of the Xoloitzcuintli, Xolos began to turn up at Mexican dog shows in the late 1940s. Although they were recognized as indigenous specimens of a native breed, interest in them was minimal at that time, because information was scarce and no standard existed by which to judge them. Within a decade, the FCI realized that the breed would become extinct if drastic action were not taken to save it. This led to the widely publicized Xolo Expedition of 1954. With the official sanction of the FCI, Wright and a team of Mexican and British dog authorities set off to discover if any purebred Xolos still existed in remote areas of Mexico.[citation needed] Eventually 10 structurally strong Xolos were found and these dogs formed the foundation of Mexico's program to revive the breed. A committee headed by Wright authored the first official standard for the breed; on May 1, 1956, the Xolo was finally recognized in its native land and, as Mexico is a member of the FCI, worldwide.[citation needed]

Choice of words

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xo-lo-itzcuintle_ _
xol-oitzcuintl-e_ _
xo-lo-itzcuintle_ _
xoloi-tzcui-ntle_ _
xoloit-zcuint-le_ _
xoloitz-cuintle_ _
xoloitzc-uintle_ _
xoloitzcu-intle_ _
xoloi-tzcui-ntle_ _
xoloitzcuin-tle_ _
xoloit-zcuint-le_ _
xol-oitzcuintl-e_ _
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