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Zp3

The meaning of «zp3»

Zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 3, also known as zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (Zp-3) or the sperm receptor, is a ZP module-containing protein that in humans is encoded by the ZP3 gene.[5] ZP3 is the receptor in the zona pellucida which binds sperm at the beginning of fertilization.

The zona pellucida (ZP) is a specialized extracellular matrix that surrounds the oocyte and early embryo. It is composed of three or four glycoproteins (ZP1-4) with various functions during oogenesis, fertilization and preimplantation development. The protein encoded by this gene is a major structural component of the ZP and functions in primary binding and stimulation of the sperm acrosome reaction. The nascent protein contains a N-terminal signal peptide sequence, a conserved "ZP domain" module, a consensus furin cleavage site (CFCS), a polymerization-blocking external hydrophobic patch (EHP), and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. Cleavage at the CFCS separates the mature protein from the EHP, allowing it to incorporate into nascent ZP filaments. A variation in the last exon of this gene has previously served as the basis for an additional ZP3 locus; however, sequence and literature review reveals that there is only one full-length ZP3 locus in the human genome. Another locus encoding a bipartite transcript designated POMZP3 contains a duplication of the last four exons of ZP3, including the above described variation, and maps closely to this gene.[5]

Orthologs of these genes are found throughout Vertebrata. The western clawed frog appears to have two orthologs, and the sea lamprey has seven.[6]

X-ray crystallographic studies of the N-terminal half of mammalian ZP3 (PDB: 3D4C, 3D4G, 3EF7​)[7] as well as its full-length avian homolog (PDB: 3NK3, 3NK4​)[8] revealed that the protein's ZP module consists of two immunoglobulin-like domains, ZP-N and ZP-C. The latter, which contains EHP as well as a ZP3-specific subdomain, interacts with the ZP-N domain of a second molecule to generate an antiparallel homodimeric arrangement required for protein secretion.[8]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.

This article on a gene on human chromosome 7 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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