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The meaning of «ll»

Ll/ll is a digraph that occurs in several natural languages.

In English, ll often represents the same sound as single l: /l/. The doubling is used to indicate that the preceding vowel is (historically) short, or that the "l" sound is to be extended longer than a single "l" would provide (etymologically, in latinisms coming from a gemination). It is worth noting that different English language traditions transpose "l" and "ll": British English "travelled" and like words, for example, are usually spelled with a single "l" (i.e., "traveled," et al.) in U.S. English.

In Welsh, ll stands for a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative sound. The IPA signifies this sound as [ɬ]. This sound is very common in place names in Wales because it occurs in the word Llan, for example, Llanelli, where the ll appears twice, or Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, where the ll appears three times.

In Welsh, Ll is a separate letter from L (e.g., lwc sorts before llaw). This led to its ligature being included in the Latin Extended Additional Unicode block at U+A746 (uppercase) and U+A747 (lowercase), displaying as and respectively.[2] This ligature is seldom used in Modern Welsh, although it is included in three fonts commissioned by the Welsh Government in 2020.[3]

In Spanish, 'll ' was considered from 1754 to 2010 the fourteenth letter of the Spanish alphabet because of its representation of a palatal lateral articulation consonant phoneme (as defined by the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language).[4]

In official Galician spelling the ll combination stands for the phoneme /ʎ/ (palatal lateral approximant, a palatal counterpart of /l/).

In Catalan, ll represents the phoneme /ʎ/. For example, as in llengua (language, tongue), enllaç (linkage, connection), or coltell (knife).

In order to not confuse ll /ʎ/ with a geminated l /ll/, Catalan uses an L with a middle dot (punt volat in Catalan or interpunct) in the digraph ŀl, for example exceŀlent (excellent). The first character in the digraph, Ŀ and ŀ, is included in the Latin Extended-A Unicode block at U+013F (uppercase) and U+140 (lowercase) respectively.

In Catalan typography, l·l is intended to fill two spaces, not three,[6] so the interpunct is placed in the narrow space between the two L: ĿL and ŀl. However, it is common to write L·L and l·l, occupying three spaces. L.L and l.l, although sometimes seen, are incorrect.

While Philippine languages like Tagalog and Ilocano write ly or li when spelling Spanish loanwords, ll still survives in proper nouns. However, the pronunciation of ll is simply [lj] rather than [ʎ]. Hence the surnames Llamzon, Llamas, Padilla and Villanueva are respectively pronounced [ljɐmˈzon]/[ljɐmˈson], [ˈljɐmas], [pɐˈdɪːlja] and [ˌbɪːljanuˈwɛːba]/[ˌvɪːljanuˈwɛːva].

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lla* llb* llc* lld* lle* llf* llg* llh* lli* llj* llk* lll* llm* lln* llo* llp* llq* llr* lls* llt* llu* llv* llw* llx* lly* llz*
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