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The meaning of «xenophobia»

Xenophobia (from Ancient Greek: ξένος, romanized: xénos, meaning "stranger" or "foreigner", and Ancient Greek: φόβος, romanized: phóbos, meaning "fear"[1]) is the fear or hatred of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.[2][3][4] It is an expression of perceived conflict between an ingroup and an outgroup and may manifest in suspicion by the one of the other's activities, a desire to eliminate their presence, and fear of losing national, ethnic or racial identity.[5][6]

A 1997 review article on xenophobia holds that it is "an element of a political struggle about who has the right to be cared for by the state and society: a fight for the collective good of the modern state."[7]

According to Italian sociologist Guido Bolaffi, xenophobia can also be exhibited as an "uncritical exaltation of another culture" which is ascribed "an unreal, stereotyped and exotic quality".[5]

An early example of xenophobic sentiment in Western culture is the Ancient Greek denigration of foreigners as "barbarians", the belief that the Greek people and culture were superior to all others, and the subsequent conclusion that barbarians were naturally meant to be enslaved.[8][9]

Ancient Romans also held notions of superiority over all other peoples, such as in a speech attributed to Manius Acilius,[10]

The historian Appian claims that the military commander Marcus Junius Brutus, before the battle of Philippi in 42 BC, met an 'Ethiopian' outside the gates of his camp: his soldiers instantly hacked the man to pieces, taking his appearance for a bad omen – to the superstitious Roman, black was the colour of death."[11]

Despite the majority of the country's population being of mixed (Pardo), African, or indigenous heritage, depictions of non-European Brazilians on the programming of most national television networks is scarce and typically relegated for musicians/their shows. In the case of telenovelas, Brazilians of darker skin tone are typically depicted as housekeepers or in positions of lower socioeconomic standing.[12]

Muslim and Sikh Canadians have faced racism and discrimination in recent years, especially since 2001 and the spillover effect of the United States' War on Terror.[13] A 2016 survey from The Environics Institute, which was a follow-up to a study conducted 10 years prior, found that there may be discriminating attitudes that may be a residual of the effects of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States.[14]

A poll in 2009 by Maclean's revealed that only 28% of Canadians view Islam favourably, and only 30% viewed the Sikh religion favourably. 45% of respondents believed Islam encourages violence. In Quebec in particular, only 17% of respondents had a favourable view of Islam.[15]

According to the UNHCR, by June 2019, there were some 4 million Venezuelan refugees, among whom 1.3 million were in Colombia.[16] Because of their urgent situation, many migrants from Venezuela crossed the border illegally, indicating they had few opportunities to gain "access to legal and other rights or basic services and are exposed to exploitation, abuse, manipulation and a wide range of other protection risks, including racism, discrimination and xenophobia".[17] Since the start of the migrant crisis, media outlets and state officials warned about the increasing discrimination of migrants in the country, especially xenophobia and violence against the migrants.[18]

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Choice of words

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